The boiler is a storage water type heater. The design consists of a heating element and a tank, in which the water is heated to the set temperature and maintained at the desired level. The choice of water heater should be made taking into account the main characteristics of the product and some of its features.
Storage water heaters are very convenient to use, which is why they are very popular.
Without hot water you can not do without washing the dishes, taking a shower or bath. That's why you need to make the right choice of a storage water heater.
When choosing a storage water heater, you need to pay attention to the following points:
- Type of structure for heating water. The design can be gas or electric.
- Suitable volume of storage tank. Depends on the number of people living in an apartment or a private house.
- The material of the coating of the inside of the tank of the water heater.
- The power of the device for heating the liquid. This indicator will determine the time of heating the water.
- The presence of several elements for heating. This will determine the cost-effectiveness of the structure.
- The presence of additional devices that simplify the work of the structure. Such elements include a temperature sensor.
This design is recommended to be used in case there are problems with the supply of hot water.
Types of water heaters in form.
Gas and electric
Gas or electricity can be used as a source of energy for storage structures. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages. Electric water heaters most often have a power of 1-3 kW, in some cases this figure can reach up to 6 kW. Designs can work from an ordinary electrical network, so they will not need to be connected to power lines.
If you use a gas storage boiler, the time of heating the water will decrease. The power of gas structures starts from 5-6 kW, which is a big advantage in comparison with the most common power of electrical devices of 1-3 kW. As an example, a water heater with a tank capacity of 150 liters will be considered. Gas appliances are often equipped with 7 kW burners, electric heating elements use elements for heating with a power of 2-3 kW. Consequently, the gas structure will heat 150 liters of water in about 1 hour, the electrical device will heat the same volume of water for 2-3 hours.
When using an electric water heater, prepare for a large amount of energy costs.
To use a gas water heater, you will need to make a chimney. In the design of a storage water heater, an open or closed chamber may be provided. This will determine the complexity of the installation. To install a gas boiler with an open type combustion chamber, you will need to spend more money. The installation of a heating device with a closed chamber will require less money, but the design itself will cost about 1.5 more.
Gas costs a lot less than electricity. Therefore, it is preferable to use gas structures in terms of economy. However, the cost of a product functioning with gas is 2-3 times greater than that of an electric product. That is why electric water heaters are used much more often.
Choice of tank volume
Wiring diagram of an electric water heater.
The volume of the water heater tank should be calculated so that the hot water is sufficient for all needs. However, it should be understood that the construction of large dimensions will be expensive, while bills for electricity will also rise. Quite often limit the choice and size of the structure. Not everyone has the opportunity to place a large device in a small apartment or a private house.
Choosing the capacity of the boiler will depend on how many residents live in an apartment or a private house. If the water is used exclusively in the washing process, you can purchase a water heater with a tank volume of less than 10 liters. However, most often the construction of this type is also used to take a bath or shower. Most of the water goes to the bathtub. Most often, the volume of baths is 170-190 liters, but this does not mean that you need to purchase a storage tank of identical volume. The bath is very rarely filled completely, some of the water will be discharged by the user's body. It should also be taken into account that hot water will be diluted with cold water. In this case, the water heater tank should have a volume of approximately 80 liters. If you set the temperature of water heating is not 50 ° C, but higher, you will need a tank of even smaller volume.
In this case, there are no specific calculation formulas for determining the required volume of the tank, since each case is individual. However, it is possible to approximately determine the volume of the container in the following way. One person needs a tank with a capacity of 60-80 liters of water. If the apartment or private house is inhabited by several people, then the volume of the tank will be approximately 100-150 liters. For a family of four people, water heaters with a volume of 150-200 liters are suitable.
The final choice of the water heater must be done based on personal needs. For example, given the economical use of water, especially for a bath or shower, a family of four can have enough water heater with a tank capacity of 120 liters. However, at the same time all members of the family will not be able to take a bath in this case. It will be necessary to wait until a new portion of water warms up in the heating structure. It is recommended to purchase a boiler with an average capacity of about 160 liters. In this case, family members will be able to use water according to their needs, and there will be no discomfort. A larger tank is recommended to be purchased only if the hot water is needed all day in a considerable amount.
Internal coating material
Anticorrosion coating of the container can be made of titanium, stainless metal or glass-porcelain. The internal coating will protect the structure from damage, and the life of the water heater will be more dependent on it. The cost of the entire product will depend on the method of protection applied. In general, there is a coating of glass porcelain and enamel, it will not be corroded. Are standing with a similar coating is cheaper than other models. However, they have one significant drawback - the sensitivity of protective materials to sudden temperature changes, which can cause cracks on the surface of small sizes. It is possible to operate the water heater in the minimum mode, heating the liquid to a maximum of 60 ° C. However, to prevent the appearance of bacteria, from time to time you will need to heat the water to the highest possible temperature.
The water heater can be installed in any convenient place. The main thing is to be close to water communications.
More reliable designs for today are water heaters, the internal coating of the tank which consists of titanium enamel or stainless metal. If on the containers with a coating made of glass porcelain the manufacturers provide a guarantee for up to 1 year, then on the model of water heaters with a tank made of metal or titanium enamel, the warranty period can be at least 7-8 years. It is worthwhile to understand that the cost of these devices will be higher. Titanium coating can be found only on expensive models of water heaters.
Titanium enamel and stainless steel tanks are more resistant to corrosion, but they have nuances associated with welding locations. After a while these sites will become vulnerable. Some sellers believe that stainless metal, reacting with a liquid, can adversely affect its taste. For example, in the process of cleaning teeth it could cause not the most pleasant sensations. However, if we proceed from the numerous reviews of the owners of heating appliances with a stainless steel container, it can be stated that no such complaints have been found.
To protect the inner coating material, a magnesium anode is mounted in the water tank. It is able to provide protection against corrosion, but it must be changed from time to time. The lifetime of this element may be approximately 6-12 months. Magnesium anodes in stainless steel tanks are also mounted.
However, the stainless metal is practically not corroded, therefore, it will not be necessary to replace such elements in such a case.
Selecting the capacity of the water heater
The time of heating the liquid in the water heater depends more on the power of the heating element. In this case, the most effective are gas structures, since their power is almost 2 times higher than the power of electrical devices with a capacity of the same volume. The difference in the time of heating the fluid in devices of the same volume can be significant. In monetary terms, for an advantage of 1 hour, you will have to pay 3000-5000 rubles. more. However, if you need to often warm the water throughout the day, the costs justify themselves.
Calculation of the cylinder capacity.
In some embodiments of the water heaters, several heating elements (heating elements) may be installed. For example, instead of one device with a power of 2 kW, 2 elements of 1 kW can be installed. A water heater with several heaters has some advantages. When there is no big need for hot water, only one heater can be used. Thus, it is possible to reduce the load on the mains. Another advantage is that in the event of failure of one of the heating elements, the structure will still remain in the active state.
Comfort and safety
In the storage devices there are still some elements that do not affect the heating of the liquid, but determine the convenience and safety of operation of the structure. One such element is the thermostat. It controls the temperature of the liquid heating. To ensure safety, it is necessary to purchase those designs in which several thermostats are installed. It should be noted that there is not an additional thermostat in all heaters.
The maximum heating temperature does not matter. All boilers are capable of heating the liquid to 60-65 ° C. On some models, a temperature sensor is provided, which is an additional advantage. The heater tank must retain heat, therefore, it must have a good layer of thermal insulation. Most of the water heating structures are able to cope with this task, on average, the water in the container cools only 6-7 ° C per day. However, the thicker the layer of thermal insulation, the better. Most often, the insulation layer is thicker in those structures that are large.
If there is no desire to perform regular maintenance, you will need to pay attention to the size of the magnesium anode. The larger this element, the less often it will be necessary to replace it.
Depending on the version, you can distinguish between horizontal and vertical tanks. The choice of the type of construction will depend on the features of its placement in a particular room. For example, vertical heaters of small sizes, in which a tank of small volume is provided, can be placed in a bath or a shower under a washbasin. High-capacity water heating designs, in which a tank with a capacity of more than 100 liters are envisaged, can be placed only in specially designated areas.
If you want to install a heating device with a large tank volume, but there is no space in the apartment, you can pay attention to the design with a horizontal location of the tank. These devices are much more expensive, but in some cases they justify themselves.
Warranty from the manufacturer on water heating devices can be from 3 to 10 years. Everything will depend on the manufacturers and material of the tank. As already mentioned, models with metal stainless steel have a longer warranty period. To maintain the guarantee for a storage water heater with an enameled inner coating, it will be necessary to perform timely maintenance of the equipment from representatives of the supplier company.
Choosing a boiler should be based on financial possibilities and how often it is planned to use the structure.