Most residents of the former Soviet Union have to regularly face the shutdown of hot water. And most often this happens in the summer, in connection with the repairs of the thermal mains. Sometimes without hot water one has to live for weeks. The logical question in such situations is the question of how to heat water. The cheapest way to do this is to operate the gas column. This is a good option in cases where near the dacha there is a gas main to which there is a domestic connection. If this is not, then you have to get out, coming up with solutions like boilers working on liquid fuels. But such a device takes up a lot of space.
It should be remembered that the capacity of the water heater is on average about 2 kW.
If we take into account the fact that there is no problem with the presence of electricity in residential areas throughout the post-Soviet space, then the best solution is an electric water heater. This is the most convenient and practical way of heating water (especially for cottages), even though electricity is slightly more expensive than blue fuel. Water heaters working on electricity are of two types: storage (capacitive) and flowing. The user only has to decide which water heater to choose.
Flowing water heater
The device of a running water heater.
The main heating element of such water heaters is a heater. TEN is a heating system using heating elements for storage and flow water heaters. It is a copper pipe, inside which a nichrome heating coil is pressed. Such a heating element is reliable and durable in operation.
The heating element is heated by means of an electric current. The principle of heating is simple: cold water becomes hot, flowing through a hot pipe. Such a water heater does not have a storage tank. All the water that he heats immediately goes to the tap. This device is good in cases where it is necessary to heat small volumes of water.
Scheme of using a flowing water heater.
If you want to take a shower or a bath, you will need to quickly heat up a large amount of water, for which you need a device that has high power.
For example, you need a power of at least 8 kW just to take a shower without problems. Such water heaters are, but the question is whether the wiring will stand, because not in every house it is designed for such capacities. In such cases, it is necessary to consult a specialist electrician.
In addition, there is another way out when you need to heat large volumes of water. Solve this problem will help the storage water heater.
If the price of a running water heater varies from $ 170 to $ 645, then the smallest storage water heaters have a price of $ 120. At the same time for $ 645 you can buy a device that has a capacity of 150 liters.
Device storage electric water heater.
The difference in price is also available between manufacturers. For example, if you take storage water heaters of the same capacity from different manufacturers, then German products are more expensive than Italian and Turkish. Apparently, the question is the quality of the materials and technologies used. German water heaters have good thermal insulation of storage capacity, which saves a lot of electricity.
Now more about the device of a capacitive water heater. In the storage tank there is already familiar to us earlier element - TEN. Its function is to heat the water to a temperature of 35 to 85 ° C. The required temperature is indicated by a fairly simple control panel. When the desired temperature is reached, the electronics switch off the heater and turn it on again if the temperature drops by half a degree from the desired water temperature level on the control panel. To minimize heat loss, the storage tank has a thermal insulation structure.
Connections of the storage electric water heater to the water supply.
Another advantage of this heater is that there is no need to worry about the wiring - on average, such water heaters have a capacity of about 2 kW. This load can withstand even the average summer residence of a recent building. Just choose a suitable tank capacity and allowable capacity. In addition, you can apply a trick that will save hot water. Set the water heating to 60 degrees and during the shower / bath simply open the cold water in addition so that hot and cold water mixes, giving you a pleasant temperature.
So hot water from the tank is consumed 2 times less than if you simply heated the water tank to 38 degrees and used only it. Before purchasing a water heater, determine how many cranes will be connected to it. If only one tap is connected, then an open (non-pressure) water heater can come up. If there are several cranes, then it's worth taking a closed boiler (pressure head).
Open and closed type
Flowing electric water heater of closed type.
Water heaters open and closed types have a different scheme. With an open (non-pressurized) type, the valve that blocks water is located between the tank and the highway. Its function is to protect the tank from the pressure that is in the water supply. As a result, it turns out that there is no pressure in the tank. But the water will still flow from the tap, because when the tap is opened, hot water begins to pour into the sink due to the fact that the cold water from below enters the tank.
Open water heaters have a special mixing valve, because of which their use is difficult in apartments that have a central supply of hot water. At cost, they differ little from closed water heaters that have similar parameters by volume of water and power.
Capacities 5, 10 и 15 литров подходят для простого мытья рук и посуды. 30 литров хватит, чтобы принять душ. Водонагреватели таких параметров являются экономными, их легко установить, они довольно компактны. Расчет - семья из 3 человек. Что касается емкостей 50, 80, 100, 120, 150 л, то они могут подойти большой семье. Capacities от 200 до 1000 литров могут подойти для организации снабжения горячей водой целого дома. Такие баки размещаются в подвалах.
Safety group of the storage water heater.
Obviously, this device must be made of corrosion-resistant materials. Small in terms of capacitive heaters have an internal capacity made of copper or polypropylene. Often you can find internal containers of enamelled steel. This material has high strength, resistance to temperature changes, is not toxic, while at the same time resistant to the effects of chemicals. Also, there are anti-corrosion anodes to extend the life of the device. The anode is a replaceable part, and some heaters have special sensors that trigger when the anode wears out.
Sometimes the internal walls can become lime. More often it happens in those areas where hard water. In order to protect the heater from plaque, find a way to clean the water before you start it in the drive. For example, you can find special filters. But if this is not possible, then it will be necessary to regularly clean the telet node. To do this, first you need to empty the tank and then dismantle the assembly. If the water in your area is really stiff, then a flow heater is recommended. This type of heater is less prone to lime formation than their storage counterparts.
Circuits for water distribution for connecting a water heater.
If you are dealing with a small wall-mounted water heater, it can be installed under the sink, without fear of water running down from above. It is important to pay attention to the degree of electrical safety of the IP device (designation of the international class of electrical protection, expressed in two figures). The first digit is the designation of the level of protection against foreign bodies and other contacts:
- hands, foreign bodies of large size;
- fingers and medium foreign bodies;
- wire and foreign body more than 1 mm;
- the highest degree of protection, even from dust.
The second figure is the level of hydroprotection:
- there is no protection;
- individual drops falling from above;
- splashes, from all sides;
- protection from a water jet, from all sides.
The most common combination of protection - IP24 and IP 25. For example, IP 24 has protection against water splashes. It can be installed in the bathroom, but at a safe distance from the shower and the sink. But with the IP25 you do not have to worry about the distance at which it is fixed from the shower and the shell, because it withstands a direct water jet of an independent direction hit. It can be installed anywhere. But in most cases, people prefer not to risk and devices even with this level of hydroprotection installed in the lockers, separately mounting the control panel.
Before choosing a water heater, decide which device is more suitable for you - gas or electric.
Calculate how much water is wasted in the room, which will be provided by hot water supply with the help of the purchased heater. Based on the results of the calculations, select the flow-through heater suitable for you according to the power, or a suitable cumulative heater.
Determine where to install the device. From this, too, will depend on which particular model your choice will stop.
In general, these are very convenient and comfortable devices, the main thing is to make a good choice and to conduct proper operation. In this case, you will enjoy the good work of your boiler for many years.