Many years ago, one of the most important inventions of mankind was the toilet. Today, every house has this design. To maintain this device, do preventive maintenance and repair, you need to know the toilet device well. It is made in several types. This affects its design features.
Toilet bowl with floor fixing is convenient and easy to install.
The toilet pendant is also called wall mounted. This device can have a drain tank, which is installed in the niche of the wall. Sometimes a tank and do not put. In addition, there are:
- a toilet bowl floor;
- compact toilet bowls filled with cistern;
- separate toilet bowls;
- a bowl of genoa.
Scheme of a toilet bowl with dimensions.
In Russia, during the Soviet era, it was decided to make a toilet, which would occupy little space and was multifunctional. So there were compact toilets. This design remains today the most popular model.
The toilet design is equipped with:
- смывным бачком;
This device is very easy to mount in almost any apartment, where the bathroom has a small size. Such a toilet bowl belongs to the class of floor, in other words, its fastening is made directly to the floor. All the load falls on the floor, which holds the mass of the device and rider.
One of the disadvantages of such a device is considered a flushing cistern. It takes up a lot of space. With a small toilet size, the user's feet sometimes touch the door.
It is very difficult to maintain such a device. To maintain hygiene, you must keep the bowl and cask clean. Washing such a system is a very time-consuming task.
This design of the toilet requires that all communication lines and the sewage system be clean. It must be said that monolithic toilet bowls have been launched today. At these devices the case merges with a wall, all communications are hidden. To make a toilet of this type, engineers have developed designs of the newest type. This model is characterized by modern design and spectacular appearance.
Suspended toilet bowls
The scheme of the structure and connection of the toilet.
Suspension devices have become widespread in Europe. In the last 10 years, such hanging constructions have become very popular in our country.
The advantage of such a device is:
- easy care;
- high hygiene.
Due to the fact that the toilet bowl does not have a support, it became very easy to wash the floor of this toilet. The flush tank is hidden in the wall, it is practically invisible. However, this design requires the installation of a supporting frame, which must have a rigid metal frame.
The frame is fixed to the floor by anchor bolts. For higher reliability, if there is such an opportunity, it is additionally attached to the wall. This design can withstand 400 kg.
On the frame is installed a toilet, together with a drain tank. The whole construction is covered with gypsum boards. In the sight there is only a toilet bowl and a flush button.
The main parts of the toilet:
The main part of the bowl is the hydraulic shutter. It is a curve channel, which is always filled with water. His work allows waste water to drain into the sewer. Such a siphon does not miss bad smells and blocks blockages.
The main principle of this mechanism is changing the parameters of atmospheric pressure, which is formed in the sewer system and riser. At atmospheric pressure, which exceeds the pressure of the sewage air, the quantity of liquid begins to decrease in the hydraulic seal, a small part of it is sent to the riser.
The inlet of the hydraulic seal is almost always made in a vertical plane, its output is made at an angle of 90 ° or slightly tilted. If the hydraulic seal is not used for a long time, the liquid can simply evaporate.
Kinds of toilet bowls by type of release.
The main task of this device is to supply water to clean the bowl of the toilet bowl. When the tank is made, a wide variety of materials are used:
- cast iron;
- stainless steel.
The main parts of the waste tank are:
The pear is made of ordinary rubber, the float is made of plastic materials, non-ferrous metal, for example, copper, is used for traction. When there is a descent of water, the rubber pear begins to rise. When the tank is empty, the pear takes its original position, completely closing the drain hole.
The overflow is a cylinder equipped with a throat.
When the float valve breaks, excess water escapes through the overflow, getting into the toilet bowl. Sometimes the overflow design is made together with a pear, but more often it is made a separate node.
For a long time in the houses were mounted toilets, having a separate high-fixed tank. In these devices, a siphon descent system was used. The negative side of this mechanism became high noise.
Connecting the communications
Scheme of the flush tank.
Water pipes and a tank are connected by rubber hoses, which have brass nuts equipped with ring seals. Very unreliable in work are plastic hoses that have plastic nuts. They can only be used as a temporary option.
The branch pipe to which cold water is connected is installed depending on the type of tank. When the lateral supply of liquid, it is attached to the side, with the supply of water from below, it is fixed at the bottom of the tank. It should be noted that when the lower fluid delivery is done, the noise force, when the tank is filled, is much lower. This option is much more beautiful and pleasant.
In compact toilet bowls, there are holes on the side where the water supply is connected. One is closed by a plug attached to the tank of the most ordinary nut. If necessary, the float valve can change places and become a plug.
The most difficult part of the drain tank is the float valve, made together with the float. Several variants of valve manufacturing are known:
At any performance, its main task is to automatically close the water supply to the drain tank when the required level reaches the critical level.
Today, dual-mode devices are widely used. They make it possible to regulate the flow of water in the flush tank. To remove the top cover in these designs, you must first remove the drain button.
Cistern с полочкой.
When buying a toilet, you must first familiarize yourself with the existing neck. It depends on the future design of the entire sewer system and the normal operation of the toilet.
The neck can have several types:
The specialist who will install the toilet, will tell you what exactly you need to buy the model.
The main criterion is installation. The main difficulty will be paved communications.
The bowl is made from a variety of materials:
Step-by-step scheme for installing the toilet.
However, the most commonly used are toilet bowls made of ceramics:
These materials are very difficult to distinguish, sometimes it can not even be done by a professional. Their cost is exactly the same. However, Sanfarfor has more positive qualities:
- less absorbs dirt;
- eliminates odors.
To determine the type of material, you need to see the catalog in the store. It usually indicates the type of material from which a certain model is made.
The twenty-first century has come. There were high technologies. Models of toilet bowls were modernized. Engineers decided to make a toilet with many additional functions:
- the water is drained automatically;
- the lifting and closing of the lid is fully mechanized;
- the seat has heating.
Universal toilet designs were launched, which simultaneously play the role of a bidet. The entire washing process is also fully automated.
There are toilets in which the water temperature is controlled, the head of the jet is regulated and many other options, the control is done remotely. Especially for this, a control panel was developed.
There were even toilets, which except as fantastic can not be called. They have an Internet connection and perform an analysis of everything that has appeared on their plane. If any abnormality or infection is detected, the doctor will send the letter electronically. It is even possible to conduct a pregnancy test.
Anti-splash is installed to prevent strong outbursts. For the operation of such a system, a special drain hole is made, which has an original geometric shape. This form ensures the absence of splashes. The drain hole in this case has the maximum constriction, it is placed very close to the bottom of the structure. The hole is slightly offset, relative to one side. The most important is the preservation of the narrow water level. The cycle in this case passes through the entire contour of the hole.
When buying plumbing equipment, it is also important to choose the right lid for the toilet design. Firstly, this is the aesthetic side of the matter, and secondly, it concerns its functionality. Usually all caps are produced standard and have the same properties.
However, today there are lids that have debugging. Now you do not need to think about closing the lid, the system will do everything automatically, the lid closes smoothly and neatly.