There is one misfortune that exactly unites all tenants of apartment buildings. These are not cockroaches, as many might think, although they are not pleasant from them. At least, they can be withdrawn, without resorting to radical measures in the form of repair, even minimal. So, this trouble is mold and the fungus that caused it.
In apartment buildings mold can appear not only in the bathroom and toilet, but also in the rooms.
It's slime and black stains in the bathroom, toilet, in the kitchen and even in the rooms. It is the fight against the fungus on the wall that unites all in a single camp affected by this scourge.
Sometimes mold can not be seen, but if there is a specific smell, mold should be found in secret places.
Before you fight with a malicious phenomenon, you need to find out the reasons and conditions for its appearance.
- Spores of fungal bacteria are constantly in the air that surrounds us, but they can grow and multiply only under certain conditions, when the high humidity of air with temperature coincides. That is why the favorite places of their appearance are rooms with a high moisture content and temperature, above the mid-room.
- In the increased risk zone, first of all, there is a bathroom, where the humidity is always increased from a regularly received shower and drying washing, and a toilet through which water pipes are piped with cold and hot water.
And then the fungus moves to the rooms. Unattractive appearance of black divorces in the corners of the apartment - this is not the main trouble. The problem is that, developing, the fungus throws out into the air millions of new disputes that can seriously damage the health of people living in the apartment, especially children. That is why the fight with this phenomenon should be conducted from the very beginning of the appearance of the first signs of his presence in the apartment.
Causes of appearance
In case the mold penetrated deep inside, it is necessary to remove the top covering of the wall to the very base.
As mentioned above, the main reason for the development of fungal spores is the increased humidity in the rooms. There is such a thing as "dew point", when the surface temperature promotes the appearance on it of condensate from moisture, which is in the air.
It must be taken into account that the air temperature is distributed unevenly even in the room, in the corners it is usually lower than in the center, the same applies to the walls, regardless of their finish.
If the appearance of the fungus in the bathroom, toilet and kitchen is understandable, then the fact of its formation in living rooms where there is no explicit source of humidity is unclear. And the nuance is that in the corners are placed the so-called "cold bridges" in which the moisture invisible to the eyes is constantly condensed.
It is not uncommon for mold to appear in those places of the wall where it is covered with carpets or back walls of furniture. In these places, due to lack of sufficient ventilation, moisture accumulates over time. Especially this phenomenon is subject to a wall facing the north side of the building.
Before you hang a carpet on it (some believe that in this way they protect themselves from the cold), it is necessary to insulate the whole wall with all the rules of the building science.
In the construction of panel apartment buildings of the Soviet period of construction, all the prerequisites for creating "favorable conditions" for the reproduction of fungal spores were initially laid.
In addition, that the system of internal ventilation was not given due attention, so even some residents during the fight against cockroaches laid ventilation shafts, thus blocking the passages for normal air circulation in the apartments.
Installation of plastic windows and entrance armored doors only exacerbated the problem.
The air exchange process decreased and the humidity increased, which created the most favorable conditions for the development of fungal infections of the wall surfaces.
Methods and nuances
Before treating the wall with an antiseptic, it is necessary to carefully remove all traces of mold with a brush with a stiff bristle.
For very many apartment owners, the fight against fungus and mold is limited to the use of antiseptic agents and fungicides. But they do not take into account that, having killed a fungus and allegedly having solved a problem, they did not by their actions touch upon the very reason for its appearance. After a while, the fungus will reappear, many have already seen it. Until normal ventilation of all rooms and rooms in the apartment is organized, until then the fungus will regularly appear on its walls.
- The first step is to check the functioning of the internal ventilation in the house. The check is performed by the method of our ancestors, using a candle flame or a match. In the absence of traction, you need to contact the housing office, but do not have any hope of help on their part.
- The presence of even a weak thrust makes it possible to install exhaust fans at the entrances of ventilation shafts of small power, thereby increasing the outflow of moist air. First of all, fans are installed in the bathroom, bathroom and in the kitchen. After several days of operation of the modernized exhaust system, it is necessary to arm yourself with a portable moisture meter (hygrometer) and check the air condition in these rooms. Such a moisture meter is inexpensive and obviously cheaper than the costs that can be incurred later, removing the fungus and, perhaps, re-making repairs. The normal level of humidity in the apartment should be in the range of 50% to 55%.
- The increased humidity in the bathroom, even with the exhaust fan, calls attention to the door, since it is she who regulates the flow of dry air into the room with the bathroom. The installation of doors with a rubber seal on the perimeter and tight closure of such an influx completely covers and does not contribute to a change in moist air to dry.
If there is no money to buy special doors for rooms with high humidity, the following manipulations can be made:
- drill a few through holes at the bottom of the door leaf and cover them with a beautiful decorative grille;
- make a clearance at the bottom of the doors between the box and the door.
Installing plastic windows is a good thing, but you need to pay attention to ensure that they are equipped with channels for free air exchange between the apartment and the external environment. Such channels are included in the system of climate valves or in the climate control system.
The last word of technology in this matter are valves with automatic adjustment. When the humidity inside the room rises, they open and let in the dry air, and after the humidity level is normal, the valves automatically close. Such valves can be mounted in already installed windows, regardless of their design and material of manufacture.
To treat the wall with an antiseptic with fungistatic action should be in a protective suit and a respirator.
Only after the organization of ventilation of the apartment and normalization of the level of air humidity proceed to remove fungal colonies and prevent wall surfaces in the places of possible occurrence:
- A brush with a metal bristle, which is used to clean the surfaces of rust, as far as possible, most carefully removes all traces left by the fungus and mold.
- It should be taken into account that at the time of stripping, millions of spores will be thrown into the air, so it is absolutely necessary to carry out these works in a respirator and goggles.
- In the case of strong biocorrosion of walls (damage to the surface of the surface due to the action of biologically active microorganisms), in such places it is necessary to apply radical methods of cleaning and remove the coating to the very foundation - a concrete or brick wall.
- In no case can the areas to be cleaned wetted with water and wiped with a damp cloth. If there is moisture on the places of the removed traces of the fungus, it must be dried with a household hair dryer or a vacuum cleaner included on the reverse.
- After stripping and drying out of the contamination sites, it is possible to start processing the areas damaged by mold and fungus with special means.
The modern chemical industry offers preparations for combating the fungus in the form of antiseptics, fungicides or fungistatic action. It is necessary to stop the choice on the last group of means to combat fungal infection. Such facilities not only remove and disinfect damaged areas of walls, but also perform preventive functions that prevent the emergence of colonies of fungi in these areas.
On the package with such a tool, the period of its active action, the time necessary for its complete absorption, depending on the surface material, and the method of application to this material are indicated. In this case, it is necessary to follow exactly all the instructions and recommendations of the manufacturer of this drug. If the instruction indicates that the product should be applied with a brush, do not spray it, as this can affect the performance of the tool. After the preparation has absorbed and dried, the treatment site needs to be covered with a primer and after it dries up, the process of restoring the walls is started.
The folk method of getting rid of mold: treatment of the wall with copper sulfate.
Folk craftsmen, who in our time are not extinct, offer several methods for treating the fungus damaged wall surface:
- solution of boric acid, vinegar, borax and water;
- diluted in water in the proportion of 4 to 1 clerical glue;
- a solution of calcium fluoride and copper sulfate;
- Use urea as a protective agent against mold.
Do not rely only on chemistry. It is necessary to regularly carry out other measures for the prevention of fungal development:
- regularly ventilate the apartment, while opening all the internal doors;
- Once a month, wipe the floors with an antifungal solution based on bleach and trisodium phosphate.
Regular maintenance of preventive measures, ventilation of rooms, active ventilation and constant monitoring of air humidity will no longer worry about the possibility of fungal infection.