Wall and floor covering using tiles in different rooms is now functional, comfortable and beautiful. A variety of ways of laying tiles provide an opportunity to obtain an interesting and original decoration of walls and floor. The existing laying technology for different applications of tiles allows you to quickly and accurately perform the desired finishing work, not only with the involvement of specialists, but also independently.
Due to wear resistance and moisture resistance, the tile is used for bathroom design.
In domestic conditions, tiles are most often used in kitchen interiors, they must finish the toilet and bathroom.
The use of tile in the bathroom is conditioned by the specific conditions of this room. In addition, tastefully selected tiles for walls, ceilings and skilful styling make it possible to decorate a wonderful interior.
The floor and walls of the bathroom are tiled with the same methods, based on the same technological stages, which include:
Scheme of wall alignment before laying tiles.
- Preparation for laying flat underlying surfaces.
- Use a special adhesive compound for a strong connection of the elements of the finish with the floor and walls.
- Placement of mounted tiles at the same distance, which is determined by cross-shaped mounting inserts.
- Use of special materials - grouts (to fill interliter seams).
The presence of unevenness on the walls and floor of the room, which is supposed to be finished with tiles, can lead to a loss of quality of the coating, and on the floor - to possible damage to individual elements of the flooring. Perform the necessary alignment, using for this purpose tile adhesive, this is both expensive and long. In this regard, the surfaces on which the tiles will be laid should be cleaned, if necessary, with a fill-in and carry out measures for their leveling. Recommendations for permissible unevenness of the surface prepared for facing are as follows: single points should not be more than 2 mm from the main plane. In addition, on the surface of the bathroom, subject to tiling, it is desirable to apply a primer, which increases the adhesion of the adhesive composition to the walls and floor. It is recommended to apply an appropriate waterproofing on top. You can apply compositions that combine both of these functions. They are usually applied on the surface with a brush or paint roller.
Selection of tiles and glues
The choice of glue for fixing tiles on the floor and walls is derived from the purchased tiles and the material of the underlying surfaces. Therefore, you should first decide on the choice of tiles.
The choice of the color of the tile and its design is a decision that is determined only by the preferences and taste of the owner of the house. But the choice of tiles on the basis of information on the differences in its operational properties and parameters that affect the possibility of use in different premises is the usual standard stage of preparation for finishing works.
There is a wide variety of tiles.
When choosing a tile for facing the walls of the bathroom, it is worth paying attention to such parameters as hygroscopicity and resistance to the effects of household chemicals. Its indicator of quality can be a smooth front side, without rough areas, dark spots and blisters. It is also recommended to check the absence of "run-up" in the geometric dimensions of the tile: if they differ markedly among the different elements of the selected lot, then it is better to refuse such products, since high-quality cladding in this case is unlikely to be achieved.
The criteria for choosing a tile for a bathroom floor covering device are similar to those listed above. In addition, it is recommended to choose the products having the highest class of wear resistance (the highest class is PEI 5).
Types of laying tiles.
After the purchase of the tile, the choice of the glue mixture (it is recommended to purchase the mixture in dry form on the basis of cement) becomes more obvious: for a situation where it is not necessary to use glue with very high retention properties, it makes sense to focus on products related to the middle price segment that is characterized by high quality at a reasonable price. The technology of using glutinous mixtures is indicated in the instructions for the preparation and application of a specific formulation.
However, the following points should be noted:
- The glue is poured into water and immediately mixed to a uniform consistency. If you do the opposite (pour water for this purpose in the glue), then in the mixture can get glue lumps that break the density of the adhesive contact.
- When preparing the glue mixture, it is necessary to observe the adhesive / water ratio very precisely. Excess water in the mixture leads to "slipping" tiles with vertical laying, and its disadvantage makes it difficult to apply glue mass to the surface of the tile.
Laying tiles on walls
The technology of facing the bathroom walls with tiles has a peculiar specificity, caused by the presence in the room of all sorts of engineering communications and a bath, which usually adjoins the wall. The recommended way of laying is from the bottom up. The adhesive mixture is applied to the tile to be laid with a spatula with prongs, which is located at an angle of 45 ° to the surface to be treated. In connection with the location of the bowl, the tile can be laid "off the floor" or "from the bowl".
Tiles must be laid according to preliminary markings.
In the first case, the whole surface of the walls, from floor to ceiling, can be faced. But usually it is not possible to finish the walls only with whole tiles: there always remains a part of the wall, which can be closed only with cut tiles. Therefore, in the technological cycle of laying tiles on the walls is the initial determination of the number of horizontal rows of whole tiles laid on the wall from ceiling to floor.
In such calculations, it is necessary to take into account the distance between rows of tiles, which can be about 3 mm. The width of inter-plate distances (seams) depends on the mounting crosses used. They are recommended to be selected in accordance with the tiles used: the size of the largest side of the tile is divided by 100. The result of the division will correspond to the thickness of the crossbeams.
The data from the calculation of the number of rows with whole tiles will allow us to determine the lower horizontal boundary from which the second (from the floor) tiling of the tile series, which is performed by the whole tile, will be laid. The first row, respectively, will be carried out undercut (at the location) tiles.
The scheme of facing the walls in the bathroom.
The specified installation boundary must be fixed on the wall by a certain line, on which the "P" or "G" -shaped metal profile, set strictly horizontally along the building level, should be fixed before starting the laying works. The profile thus mounted will serve as the initial stop of the tile laid on the wall, protecting it from "slipping".
Instead of a metal profile, any other structure having the necessary performance characteristics can also be used.
Laying tiles starts with any (better from the "main") corner and is performed with a whole tile. And it is recommended to make each row "round" in order to avoid the stitching of the joints (by default it is assumed that the lining is made using the "seam in the seam" method). Laying of the first tile is carried out very carefully, verifying its horizontal and vertical. From the correct installation of the first tile depends on all further styling.
Tiled joints of internal corners are filled with grout, and with uneven geometry of corners plastic corners can be used. Laying the first row with edging is done only after the work on the floor covering is completed.
When laying the tile "from the bowl" the basic bottom line of the tile to be installed will be the upper edge of the bowl of the bathtub set out and precisely leveled along the horizon. In this case, the first row of tiles will cover the area of abutment of the bowl to the wall, protecting it from moisture ingress without installing additional tin.
Before laying, as in the previous case, it is necessary to make a rough calculation of the number of rows of a whole tile placed between the bowl and the ceiling, with the obligatory allowance for the width of the intertice joints. Due to the fact that the first row of tiles will openly lean on the bath, it will be wrong to use edging tiles with uneven edges for its installation.
An interesting option is the creation of patterns on the floor of tiles-mosaic.
When an entire number of tiles are not stacked vertically between the top edge of the bowl and the ceiling, ceramic borders or friezes can be used to fill the resulting horizontal gap between rows of tiles above the bowl. With this laying, it may be necessary to select the appropriate width of the intertice joints.
The finished facing of the walls should be kept for 24 hours, after which it is possible to grout joints between tiles, which is made only with a rubber spatula.
Layout of the layers when installing the tiled floor and walls in the bathroom.
It is recommended to start the installation from a far corner with respect to the doorway. But initially it is necessary to evaluate the configuration of the floor, the subsequent use of it so that the placement of unavoidable cut-off tiles during the laying could be planned in a place closed from the line of sight. In addition, it should be possible to use part of the floor without interfering with laying operations.
At a time, the adhesive is applied to the floor in the volume required for mounting no more than three tiles. If the installation uses a tile with a raised lower part adjacent to the floor, the adhesive mixture should be applied to the tile, too.
The first tile is laid in the very corner, and before the final fixation of this element of the floor covering, with his hands pressed to the adhesive layer, slightly turn it to the left and to the right (relative to its vertical axis of symmetry). It is not recommended to move the tile on the floor with the adhesive layer applied.
At the beginning of laying, the surface of each mounted floor covering element is inspected by the building level and monitored in height. Each next tile laid on the floor is monitored horizontally and vertically, and also with respect to the plane created by the surface of the already assembled elements.
The laid tile with respect to adjacent, already laid elements is fixed by means of mounting crosses. And it is recommended to put the crosses in the center of the convergence of the floor tiles, in order for the intertight seams to level the spread of their geometric dimensions. The tile should be fitted with a rubber mallet.
A day after laying, you can carry out the grouting of the floor.
Recently, new technologies for laying tiles without the use of crosses have appeared. They are based on the principle of leveling the tile to be mounted by using different types of composite devices placed along its joined edges. Their lower and upper parts, moving towards them under the influence of the force applied to them, collect the cladding elements into one flat plane. But these technologies are not widely used in practice.
Tips for checking the quality of styling
If the work on laying the tile in the bathroom was done by specialists, then when accepting the work done, it is necessary to check the quality of its performance. Practitioners recommend "tapping" the mounted tile covering with the bent finger of the hand (similarly to a soft knock on the door). If, when tapping a wall or floor covering, it responds with a deaf and rattling sound, then it can be concluded that the element of the coating on which it was pounding is glued badly, with a violation of the technology.