Leveling the floor - this is something that no major repair in an apartment, house or office can do without. But even a simple replacement of floor covering requires first of all to level the floor.
The scheme of leveling the floor for the tile.
Alignment by lighthouses is called so because first you need to install and fix the metal slats, the so-called lighthouses, then according to their level you need to level the screed. This method makes it possible to obtain an even and durable surface in large rooms even with considerable unevenness of the bearing floor. The only drawback is that the screed can dry completely after 10-30 days, depending on the size of the irregularities and, correspondingly, the thickness of the cement slurry layer.
The scheme of leveling the floor with sheet materials.
Before beginning all work, the rough floor must be swept thoroughly. The installation of lighthouses should be carried out along the premises, the first and last - at a distance of 30 cm from the wall, others - with an interval of 100 cm.
Beacons are fixed for a solution of cement or gypsum. Then, along the line of beacon laying, you need to "slap" the solution with an interval of 20-30 cm, put the beacons on it and level it. As a beacon used perforated corners, you can use metal guides to fix gypsum boards - they are quite tough and not too heavy. When the gypsum (or cement) grit a little, it should be filled with a solution of emptiness between the floor and the beacons. After the latch has fully dried, you can begin leveling the floor.
The working solution must have a consistency of sour cream, i.e. it will not be too liquid. It's hard to level and it will dry for a long time. Very thick solution is difficult to achieve a uniform screed, because it will be porous.
Nuances of alignment
Leveling the floor with plywood without lag.
Work should start from the far corner and move to the exit. The first two sectors and the last two are filled with a solution at the same time, because the sectors near the walls are narrow, all subsequent ones are made separately. The solution should be evenly distributed throughout the sector in such a way as to prevent the formation of voids. The final leveling of the mixture in sectors is carried out by rule first perpendicular to beacons, then along beacons.
When leveling by the "filling floor" method, self-leveling mixtures are used, which are sold in dry form. Cook them right before refilling, strictly adhering to the manufacturer's instructions.
The ready mix is poured out at the far corner of the entrance and leveled with a spatula with a long handle. Then rolled with a needle roller. The length of the needles of the roller should be greater than the thickness of the pouring layer. This treatment prevents air bubbles. After the solidification of the mass in the layer of pouring is completed, the deformation joints are cut through the Bulgarian with a help of a bolt and they are closed with an elastic filler.
In large rooms, to fill the floor, the machine can be filled. If the pouring time exceeds the setting time of the mass, the pouring should be done by strips.
Particularly carefully handle the roller requires a place of contact of different kneads with manual pouring and the place of the joint of the strips - with the machine. Such preparation of the floor is the best way of leveling the floor for laying linoleum and laminate.
Alignment by extension is more often used in dachas and in apartments on the ground floor. This is, perhaps, the only way to level the floor and simultaneously insulate it. Under such a floor, you can mount some communications.
Scheme of floor leveling with plywood for parquet laying.
It is necessary to start the work with the identification and careful sealing of all defects: cracks, chips, potholes, etc. Then the surface of the rough floor is primed and insulated with a vapor barrier film with allowance on the walls (the height of the proposed floor). After preparation, you can lay logs.
The principle of laying is similar to the laying of beacons in the previous method: the logs are laid out on the rough floor and leveled in the horizontal plane with the help of the level. The wooden logs must be fixed with wooden or plastic wedges, while the logs are fixed with screws to the lags. To fix the logs to the floor you can use anchors or metal staples.
The heater fits into the sectors between the lags with a small allowance. And the last stage of the process is laying on the floor boards of boards, multilayer plywood or chipboard. Coatings are fixed by screws.
Leveling of the floor when laying the tile is possible only with small horizontal deviations of the floor area, since large irregularities will require more mortar and the weight of the developed mortar together with the weight of the tile can be critically high.
Measurement of the floor level
Arrangement of lighthouses.
Before you begin to level the floor, you need to determine how it is uneven. If the deviations are small, then you can limit yourself to simply pouring the self-leveling mixture and laying the selected coating.
If you can see that simple filling can not do, then you need to completely remove the old screed and sweep out dust and dust, otherwise the accuracy of the measurements will not be achieved. In most cases, the unevenness of the floor appears due to the curve of the plate or its laying curve.
Then the laser level needs to be set on the floor point, which seems to be the highest. The floor is aligned along the red line to the perimeter of the room. If the irregularities are very large, then the only way is to equalize the lighthouses. It may be that as a result of the floor leveling the balcony door will not open or the battery hangs too low. You can start leveling only after solving these problems.
Sometimes it is more rational to do without pouring mortar from mortar mixes.
The floor can be leveled using cement-particle boards (DSP).
The sequence of preparation steps for alignment is the same as for other methods. An alignment line is being carried out, but instead of the beacons, the floor of the boards is laid. The boards are attached to the rough floor. The base is leveled along the level and across the room, and the DSP slabs are laid on it (the base). The plates are fastened with self-tapping screws. Slots between the slabs are shpatanded by the rattler, and the final level check is carried out.
Stages of leveling the concrete floor.
Wooden floor даже в век новых технологий остается самым востребованным материалом для напольного покрытия. Единственный недостаток деревянного пола таков: его сложно укладывать и еще сложнее выравнивать под конкретное покрытие.
Defects of the floor can arise due to improper storage and drying with a violation of the technological regime - the board warps, when the cracks appear, crevices appear. Floor boards can be selected from different lots, processed on different machines. There may be a difference in the thickness of the board.
For soft, flexible coatings, such as linoleum, carpet, carpet, board height differences up to 1 mm are not terrible: this coating does not break, does not creak, does not warp. But these coatings are very sensitive to crevices between the boards.
There are several ways to level the floor for such coatings. If the difference in height is more than 1 mm, you can lay plywood under the covers, fix it on a tree and cover the linoleum or carpet. Complicated with slots. If the floor does not bend, then you can putty, clean the cracks. The floor is ready. If it bends, you can cover the old floor with chipboard.
For some time such a floor will serve, but there is no guarantee that the plates will not sag. Therefore, you can take a radical and more expensive way - to go through the whole floor again. What does this method give? You can completely get rid of cracks. In the process, the boards are shifted, and the slot is reduced to the wall. Then one rake (or several sexual laths) is delivered, and the floor becomes dense. In parallel, the boards are adjusted in height. For this purpose, a groove is made in the logs for the width of a thicker board or a lining is made for thinner boards.
If necessary, you can add a few additional logs and be sure that such a floor will not bend, will not dry up and will not warp. Then do not have to do the ceilings, which will be lower by the thickness of plywood or chipboard.
For a laminate, crevices in the floor are less important, but the unevenness of the boards has a significant effect. In this case, you can apply a loop. With the help of a sewing machine, the upper (uneven) layer of the tree is removed, and the floor surface becomes perfectly even and smooth. Now you need to remove the shavings and sawdust with a broom, then a vacuum cleaner. You can safely lay the laminate.
Carrying out the above recommendations, you can easily make floor leveling yourself. Good luck!