To obtain a large amount of hot water in apartments of urban type or private houses water heaters of various types are used. They are divided into two large groups: flow and accumulation. By type of consumed energy, they can be divided into the following types: gas and electric. How to choose a storage water heater?
Diagram of the storage water heater device.
The flow-through devices only heat the water to the desired temperature, but do not retain the hot liquid. Therefore, if you need to get an uninterrupted heating system, then the question arises, how to choose the right water heater?
First, you need to determine the type of energy consumed for heating (electricity or gas). Then it is necessary to find out what parts the storage water heater of the chosen type consists of. After this, you determine the correct volume of its tank, and you can go choose a model. The last stage - the water heater is installed in the apartment. How to solve all these problems correctly, will be described below. With proper implementation of all recommendations, the device will last several years.
Determination of volume
For this, there are special tables. The temperature of hot water is assumed to be 60 ° C, to this level it must be heated by a water heater. The flow rate of different instruments varies:
- washing in the kitchen - up to 20 liters;
- sink - up to 14;
- washing hands - about 6 liters;
- shower - 40 l;
- bath - up to 200 liters.
Table of the choice of the water heater.
This is with cold water, and if it is heated to 60 ° C, the amount of liquid used is somewhat reduced due to dilution by cold flow.
The volume of the heater tank can be calculated as follows. Let there be 3 people in the family, then they take from the above table the consumption of water for the shower, and the figure is multiplied by the number of family members: 40 X 3 = 120. Then you need to add the flow of water with a sink: 120 + 20 = 140. The received number is a little bit overestimated, therefore from a number of volumes of let out tanks under water heaters it is necessary to choose the nearest face value, namely - 120-liter accumulator.
If the flow rate of the liquid during the calculation is large, then it is possible to put the water heaters in the kitchen and in the bath. The units are produced in the following volumes: 5, 10, 30, 50, 80, 100, 120, 50, 200, 300, 400 liters. Banks differ in size, weight and quality. Therefore, before buying storage water heaters, you need to consult a specialist.
We pass to the next stage: now we need to decide on what the unit will operate: gas or electricity?
Water heater selection
As already mentioned above, they can be gas and electric. The first is very convenient to install in private houses and cottages, where you can allocate a special room for the boiler, which meets all standards for similar devices.
Cumulative water heaters can be: open (non-pressure) and closed (pressure).
Gas storage units can have one- and two-tank circuits. Their installation is best entrusted to specialists, since the kit includes many parts and materials for installation. It is necessary and special permission to use such an aggregate, so most people install a storage electric water heater. Such a device gives a sufficiently large volume of water with minimal load on the electrical networks.
The prices for such equipment are quite acceptable - from 180 to 700 dollars with the volume of the tank from 120 to 150 liters. If you need a smaller unit, then, for example, a five-liter drive will cost $ 130.
Water heaters of different manufacturers have different quality. The most reliable devices are those manufactured by German companies, for example, Stiebel Eltron.
They pay great attention to thermal insulation, which allows you to keep the hot water tank for more than a day. Its temperature during this period falls only by 5-6 ° C, and this saves energy. Tanks have a high-quality enamel coating and a steel case (stainless steel).
Positive and negative properties
- There is always a supply of hot water.
- These devices have good economy.
- Relatively large dimensions: you need to have a certain place for installation.
- Long term liquid heating (up to 2 hours).
The main parts of the unit are as follows:
Diagram of water heater installation.
- A pipe through which cold water is supplied.
- The heater is the main heating element.
- Гаситель потока.
- Temperature regulator.
- Outlet pipe for hot water.
- Temperature sensor.
- Special anode.
- Thermal insulation layer.
- Internal tank.
- Indicator light.
- Electrical cable.
In small (by volume) devices, the internal container can be made of copper or polypropylene. The body is often made of stainless steel. Above is enamel coating. Inside it is installed a special anode - this is a replacement part, which protects the unit from corrosion. It serves from 5 to 8 years. If it is destroyed, then on many drive models the indicator light comes on. In this situation, you need to change the anode, and the tank will work again.
Wiring diagram of the boiler.
With continued operation on the walls of the unit, scale is deposited, which can spoil it. For prevention in this case, every 4-5 months, check the heater and remove it from the plaque. Before this, the tank must be emptied.
The heater heats the water to 85 ° C and turns off. As soon as the water temperature decreases by half a degree, the heater switches on again. To reduce heat losses, polyurethane insulation is used. It is located between the inner tank and the body. The water heater has a power of up to 2.5 kW. This is the average value for aggregates of storage type. It usually ranges from 900 to 6000 watts and depends on the volume of the tank.
Which water heater should I choose? If you already know the volume of the tank, which must be purchased, then you must choose the right device with the appropriate element - TEN. It is better if the water is heated 1-2 hours to 85 ° C - in this mode the water heater spends less electricity. If, for example, you need a 120-liter device, it can have a TET with a power of 1.5 or 1.8 kW, then choose a less powerful element.
When choosing a storage water heater, it is necessary to focus on the consumption of hot water by one person on average.
For washing hands electric heaters in volume from 5 to 15 liters are intended, and 30-50-liter are convenient for taking a shower in the suburban area, etc. They have a relatively small size and are easily mounted above or near the sink. Heaters having a volume of 50 to 150 liters are used to supply hot water to families with more than 3 people. For large tank sizes (from 200 to 1000 liters), appliances are installed for autonomous supply of a private house or cottage.
It should be taken into account that when the crane is opened at full capacity, the water in the tank for 50-80 liters ends within 10 minutes and it will be necessary to wait for it to warm up for another 2 hours.
There is another type of electric heater for water - a boiler. It is executed in the form of a locker with a screen. Water can be poured into it by a bucket or connected to a water supply network. Such devices are produced for cafes and bars, where large amounts of hot water are needed in a short period. They can be applied at the dacha. They have special handles for regulating cold and hot water, as on a conventional mixer. When buying any kind of electric water heater, you need to pay attention to the degree of its protection.
To do this, you need to buy in the construction market, metal hoses for water, sanitary fittings, protective electric automaton.
The tank is usually installed close to the water source. This can be done near the kitchen sink or in the bathroom. The process of installing the water heater is as follows:
- They block the water in the apartment.
- At the place where the tank will be installed, the markings are placed on the wall under its mountings.
- Install the fasteners and hang the unit.
- Make a sidebar in the water supply system and attach the hoses to the pipes and the tank.
- Before doing this, install a non-return valve on the inlet of the instrument.
- Separately, a cable is output to power the TEN and a protective device is mounted on it.
- Connect water and electricity and check the operation of the heater according to the instructions that are attached to its kit.
If all these actions seem difficult, then it is better to call specialists who will do this work.
When choosing a water heater, you need to know the following:
To install a suspended water heater, choose a load-bearing wall and attach it to the powerful hooks.
- Before buying a person must determine exactly which unit he will buy - a gas dual-circuit device or an electric tank.
- To choose the right type or model, you need to know how much water the family consumes. Proceeding from this and choosing the capacity and power of the heater.
- The installation site must also be correctly selected. If it is a gas boiler unit, then it is best to install it in a separate room, which should be well ventilated. If it is an electric type storage device, then it can be hung over the sink in the kitchen or in the bathroom.
- Do not be stingy: it's better to pay more for an apparatus made of better materials than to buy a cheap but quickly damaged heater.
- Do not forget about prevention. It is advisable to take out the heater every 4 months and clean the unit of scale. This will allow him to serve for a long time without major repairs.
Materials and tools needed for tank installation:
- Water heater included.
- Hoses metal for water.
- Electric machine.
- Sanitary fittings: valves (if necessary), tees, elbows, etc.
- Check valve.
- Electric drill.
- Hammer, pliers.
In any case, if you need to make a choice between several models of different companies, it is advisable to consult a specialist. In order for the selected sample to work for a long time, all the recommendations listed above must be followed.