Ceramic tiles have been used for repairs for a long time, but this does not make this material less popular, which is due to the practicality and durability of the coating. The tile has a high mechanical strength, its surface is not afraid of the impact of corrosive substances, and the floors after the arrangement are characterized by waterproofing properties.
The floors are made of tile practical, universal, beautiful coating.
The device of floors from a ceramic tile assumes carrying out measurement of a room that will allow to calculate necessary quantity of a material. The next stage of work involves preparing the surface to be lined, after which you can start laying the tile. The last step is to grout the seams.
In some cases, the device of tile floors can be produced on a surface that has not been leveled, which is true if the irregularities are insignificant.
Errors in this case can be leveled with the help of glue, which will fit under the tile. It should be noted that such an approach will slow down the process and entail the need for high accuracy in laying. For this reason, it is preferable to align, if possible, in advance.
In addition, the technology limits the adhesive layer by a limit of 7 to 15 mm.
Types of laying tiles on the floor.
This indicates that it will not be possible to eliminate large differences due to it. Among other things, it is necessary to take into account that the gypsum putty and the plaster mortar, which should be used for leveling, have a lower cost compared with tile glue.
The device of ceramic floors can be made by technology of figured, diagonal, linear clutches or technique, which is called on the fly. Linear masonry - tile flooring in even rows. The method of ransacking involves the laying of items that are displaced to the same distance in proportion to the dimensions. Diagonal masonry provides tile flooring to butt of its corners.
Dimensions of tiles, rooms and the scheme used can affect the volume of material, which can differ by 10-20% or more, taking into account trimming. If you want to save in the process of device flooring, it is recommended to apply the linear method, but it looks less exquisite unlike the others.
The diagonal method is used, as a rule, when external expansion of the oversized surface is required, and also in the case of large rooms. The consumption of tiles in this case will be somewhat larger, which is due to the need to correct the size of the tile. And if the tile has an irregular shape and a significant size, then its consumption will increase many times.
The number of tiles to be used in the process of work is calculated based on the specific floor area. The figure obtained in the calculation adds 10%. If a diagonal masonry method is used, 20% should be added. Calculate the volume of the adhesive mixture can be, knowing the required thickness of application.
Layout of the tile in an uneven room.
It is not recommended to focus on books that were printed in Soviet times, as they provide calculations for the use of cement-sand mixture, which must be applied with a continuous layer. At a modern masonry of a ceramic tile a notched trowel and special glutinous structures are used. This allows for significant savings.
For the arrangement of floors from tiles, between which there will be even and uniform seams, plastic crosses should also be used. After the work, the joints should be expanded using grouting. Crosses, as a rule, are sold in packages, and their number is sufficient for the implementation of masonry.
This applies to the volume of grouting, which is sufficient for the process. Before buying, you need to take into account that crosses can have different sizes. Their thickness will determine the width of the seam. They should be installed at the junction of 4 products. On sale you can find crosses, the width of which varies from 1 to 5 mm. Tiles laid with a takeoff of 2-3 mm, should be used in tandem with crosses with a width of 4-5 mm.
Preparation for the process
Before laying the tiles, the floor is leveled over the beacons.
Arrangement of floors from ceramic tiles should begin with the installation of lighthouses. In order to get a smooth laying of tiles, it is first necessary to install light beams or rows, using for this purpose a plaster mixture, for example, putty. The use of gypsum is due to the fact that the setting speed of the material is higher than that characteristic of cement. Each product must be leveled.
The position of the beacons should be checked for verticality and horizontality in relation to each other by means of a rule that represents a long, even rail. In some cases, piers are used for this, represented by ropes stretched along the rows.
Installation of the first beacons should be done in opposite corners. In the following, the beacon tiles must be joined by the lighthouse rows. In this case, the work should be carried out using traditional adhesive for tiles.
Tools for laying tiles: mixer, spatulas, bucket, crosses, hammer, tile cutter, level, ruler.
The following materials and tools will be needed to carry out the work:
- notched trowel;
- plastic crosses;
- a wooden bar;
- roller tile cutting machine.
The device of floors in an interval between lighthouse rows should be made by means of glue, put by means of a notched trowel. It is necessary to cover both the back surface of the ceramic tile and the facing surface. In the latter case, apply the mixture on the floor at a time for 1 m2 surface. The thickness of the layer for the tile is equal to the size of the denticles of the instrument. Once the laying of one ceramic tile was made, you can align its position by using a kyanik and a wooden bar.
Laying the tiles is done on the prepared floor.
The device of floors should exclude the formation of voids under the surface of the tile. For this reason, some masters use the masonry technology a little to the side of the previous row, and after that they just push the newly laid tiles to it. At the same stage, it is necessary to mount crochets. When tiling floors, the position of the newly laid product can be changed within 15 minutes. Time can vary, which is affected by the density and thickness of the adhesive layer. If the tile position needs to be changed after the specified period, the product must be dismantled, cleaned of the mixture, and then laid again.
По правилам, если нет возможности произвести укладку плитки в ряду, используя определенное количество целых плиток, перед началом обустройства ряда нужно произвести резку изделий. Если полы будут иметь в составе материал, который обладает незначительной толщиной, допустимо использовать в качестве инструмента для резки традиционный стеклорез, а для корректировки более массивной плитки следует использовать roller tile cutting machine. Ряды, в которых должны располагаться отрезные изделия, нужно располагать в наиболее удаленных от входной двери концах комнаты.
If the room is supposed to be tiled with not only the floor, but also the walls, you should initially tackle the floor.
By arranging floors, you can notice that during the process of laying a certain amount of adhesive composition emerged from the seams. You can get rid of it with a rubber spatula and rags. As a result, the seam should remain free to a depth of 3 mm. Otherwise, the grout will lie in a thin layer and soon it will crumble. Release the floors from the dowelling crosses one day after the completion of the work.
Apply the grout with a rubber spatula. Primary congealing will occur in 20-30 minutes. Surplus of grout from the surface of floors and seams should be removed with a wet sponge. After the grout has dried, what happens after 2 days, the seams can be covered with a protective compound.
If you follow the above rules, the floor after the completion of the work will look good, and the surface will be even.