When repairing in a bathroom or kitchen, walls and floors are usually preferred to be covered with ceramic tiles. This allows you to save money and materials, and at the same time give the room a finished look. In the construction market there is a wide choice of tiles of the most diverse forms and colors.
Ways of laying tiles.
How should the tiles be properly laid on the wall with their own hands? What additional materials and tools are needed for this?
The technological process and the recommendations of specialists, which should be taken into account when doing this work, will be described below.
Beginning of work
First you need to choose a tile of the right size and the desired color. After this, you need to buy glue or cement with sand and trowel. Work requires measuring, marking and construction tools. You may need a plate cutting machine or a Bulgarian with discs for cutting ceramics. If this is not the case, you will have to buy it in the same construction market. An approximate list of the necessary materials and tools is given below.
Laying on the wall
The first step is to prepare the surface to be coated. To do this, it is necessary that all corners of the room are strictly vertical, and on the walls there were no depressions or hillocks. If these factors interfere with the work, then it is necessary to level the wall with a solution of cement and sand (ratio 3: 4). After the end of this procedure, you must wait until the wall is dry. Only after this, you can start laying the tile.
Layout of tiling on the wall.
Work on laying the plates on the wall with your own hands requires carefulness and accuracy, since you must constantly monitor the verticality of the plane of the tiles being installed and the horizontalness of each row. To do this, dilute the glue in the way indicated on the label, and stir thoroughly so that there are no lumps. Then dial it on a notched trowel and put on that part of the wall where the tiles should be laid. The main task is to properly pack the first row. To do this, from the floor back up (the size of one tile) and draw the line strictly horizontally. At this level, fixed with nails or dowels metal or wooden rail. It will serve as a support for the tiles to be attached.
If you need to do this in the bathroom, then you can take the side of the bathtub for the first level. For each square (or rectangle) of the material, glue is applied at several points: in the middle and along the edges of the tile. The tiles are pressed against the wall and held until the adhesive composition seizes. In order to take into account the expansion of the material in hot weather, we must leave a distance of 1-2 mm between the squares. In order not to suffer and not to do this work by eye, use special plastic crosses that are inserted between the tiles. Laying should be conducted in rows along the perimeter of the room. At the same time, it is necessary to constantly check their horizontality with the help of a building level. Having finished the first row, go to the second and so on, until all the walls of the room are covered with tiles.
After this, remove the fixed rail and insert the tile onto the remaining space. When moving to the plane of the adjacent wall, it may be necessary to install a special plastic or metal profile to maintain the verticality of the installation. It is sold in the construction market. It is left under the tiles laid. Often it is necessary to cut the material plates, since they do not fit in this section in size.
First, the material is placed in any container with water. There, tile should be kept for about an hour and only after that you can start working. You can cut with a glass cutter, a metal pencil with a winning tip or a special machine tool. Then the plate is placed on the edge of the table and pressed against the place that must be separated from the main material: the tile will break up into pieces.
Scheme of cutting tiles with a glass cutter.
Remember, the cut line should be at least 10-12 mm from the edge of the plate. The glass cutter should be used after the preliminary marking of the tile, and it is necessary to evenly force them into the material, leading the tool to their side. This operation is carried out only once.
In the same way, a metal pencil with a tip of the winning is used. The cutting machine can be used both for cutting and for breaking tiles. It is equipped with a special ruler for precise installation of the desired size. For this operation, you can use a grinder with discs for cutting tiles.
How to make a hole in the ceramic? There are several ways to perform this work. It must first be removed in the place where the hole, glaze, is to be made. For this purpose, a hammer and a tap are usually used. Then a drill is drilled. It is possible to make the same operation as a winning drill, clamped in the cartridge of an electric drill, which should be put on small turns.
Masonry on the floor
Prepare the basis for work. For this purpose, you must perform the following operations:
- All skirting boards and platbands at the door are removed.
- To conduct in the room of the center lines, it is necessary to determine the centers of the opposite walls.
- Carry out the marking and diagonals of the room, but it is needed in the event that the ceramic slabs are put on them.
Layout of tiles on the floor.
Then the process of laying begins. If the full plate does not fit and needs to be cut, then we must try to get it under the plinth. To do this, it is best to start laying a pattern from the center of the room towards its walls.
First, you do not need to glue the material to the floor. Simply laid out the pattern and determined the number of plates that need to be cut.
After doing this work, mix the glue and mix well. Give the mixture a few minutes to settle and start work.
Apply glue to the floor with a notched trowel and spread over the surface. Lay the ceramic tiles and press the entire surface of the hand. For larger plate sizes, a rubber hammer can be used to do this, which is taped from the center of the plate to its edges (Fig. 1). Between the individual squares you have to put plastic crosses to support the necessary clearance. After glued 2-3 m², it is necessary to walk along this coating and remove excess adhesive mixture with a cloth, and then continue working. To control the level of flooring plates, you must constantly use the building level. After the end of work, all plastic crosses from the walls and floor must be removed.
Now, when all the surfaces of the room are covered with ceramics, they pass to the grouting of the seams between the plates. This is done after the glue finally clings to the walls and floor.
Dilute the trowel mixture in water and bring to the density of sour cream.
The mortar must be filled with all the joints between the tiles.
Its excess is removed with a spatula and a rag. Waiting 30-60 minutes, so that it stiffens.
Wet rag clean the entire surface, covered with ceramics. The water must be warm. This operation can also be performed using a sponge.
Tools and materials
For work you will need:
Tools for laying tiles.
- cement and sand;
- adhesive for ceramics;
- Plastic crosses and perforated angles (for corners of the room);
- a Bulgarian with disks;
- manual or electric drill with drills;
- machine for cutting tiles;
- spatulas (serrated and simple);
- building level and plumb bob;
- metal or wooden strip;
- nails and dowels;
- glass cutter or metal pencil with a winning tip;
- a marking cord and a tape measure;
- containers for dilution of glue and grout;
- rag or sponge.
To properly and accurately make a coating of ceramics on the walls and floor, do not rush. You should carefully follow all the above recommendations, and then the resulting coverage will please you for many years.