How to lay a ceramic tile on the floor surface

Ceramic tiles - very practical and durable material for floor installation. It is strong and well washed. That is why it is chosen when repairing the floor in the kitchen, bathroom and toilet areas: where there are possible various leaks in water supply systems or household pollution.

Floor scheme, tiled with ceramic tiles

Floor scheme, lined with ceramic tiles.

When purchasing material, it is necessary to pay attention to the class of tiles, which characterizes its impact-resistant properties. For residential and auxiliary premises, the first class is sufficient. In rooms where people walk shoddy, where solid materials or tools fall, the grade of ceramics should be chosen higher. The floor should not be slippery, especially in the bathroom.

The amount of purchased material is determined by the floor area with the addition of 5-10% to compensate for possible chips and unsuccessful ceramic cuts.

Substrate preparation

The basis of any work on laying the tile is the preparation of the floor. The general requirement for the foundation is this: it must be smooth and stable. If the tile is planned to be stowed in a new apartment, then immediately begin to prepare the base. If housing is classified as secondary, then it may be necessary to remove the old basis and implement a new one. In this case, it is necessary to dismantle all the floor elements: plinths, thresholds, old tiles or other type of coating.

Floor tile alignment scheme

The scheme of leveling the floor for the tile.

If the old floor is wooden and you want to put ceramic tiles on it, you need to check the floor for strength and, if necessary, strengthen the logs, replace the rotten floorboards so that the floor does not have any deflections under the weight of the furniture and the weight of the person. The wooden floor under the tile is leveled, as a rule, with waterproof plywood 10-12 mm thick in one or two layers, depending on the strength of the base and the angle of the detected gradient. In this case, the joints of the lower and upper layers of the plywood must not coincide.

After the screed has dried, it is sanded and impregnated with a penetrating primer for better subsequent adhesion of the tile adhesive. In the kitchen, toilet and bathroom, first of all, it is necessary to make a waterproofing to prevent leaks on the lower floors. Waterproofing can be done with a roofing felt by gluing the places of joining the sheets with mastic on a bituminous basis. The waterproofing should partially come on the walls, to the height, depending on the thickness of the planned floor base. The reinforcement grid is laid on the waterproofing and the screed is poured over the lighthouses.

More simple and effective is the technology of dry screed, in which the floor is leveled with special gypsum-fiber boards without the use of sand, cement and water.

Materials and Tools

The durability of the flooring from ceramic tiles largely depends on the quality of the materials used, so it is very important to approach it. To lay ceramics on the floor you will need:

  • tile;
  • tile adhesive;
  • grout for sealing joints between tiles;
  • set of crosses for leveling tiles.
Tools for laying ceramic tiles

Tools for laying ceramic tiles.

The speed and quality of tile laying are largely determined by the presence of a particular tool. The more accessories, the easier and faster to put ceramic tiles. You may need:

  • mixer for mixing tile glue;
  • tile cutters - a tool with which you get a smooth and high quality tile cutting (in the absence of tile cutters it can be cut with a conventional glass cutter and using the same technology);
  • nippers plumbing (with their help, tiles can be trimmed or tapped under a pipe);
  • A rubber hammer to level the tiles according to the level;
  • spatula with wavy working surface for applying tile adhesive;
  • measuring ruler or tape measure;
  • building level;
  • gon;
  • sponge and rags for washing tiles.

The specified tool can be supplemented or replaced in accordance with individual preferences.

Laying tiles

Before putting ceramic tiles, it is necessary to make a marking of the laying area. It is best for this to decompose the material on the prepared surface in the order in which it should lie. The fact is that a room can often have an irregular geometric shape. Making markings with the help of tiles, moving it and turning, you can achieve its ideal location.

Options for laying ceramic tiles

Options for laying ceramic tiles.

Stacking of ceramics must start from the wall with the entrance door so that the cut tile is not in sight, but if possible at the far end of the room or under furniture.

In order not to walk on the newly laid ceramic tile, it is necessary to provide bridges of the required length. Preliminary layout is also desirable in the presence of a pattern, so that during the laying process, the required composition of the laid out tile should not be disturbed.

If you need to visually increase the size of the room, the tiles should be laid diagonally. Preparing the tile adhesive is to mix it with water in the proportions specified in the instructions. In accordance with the drying time of the adhesive at a time, it is necessary to prepare a not very large amount to avoid its drying in the container.

To lay the tiles with a wavy trowel, apply a layer of glue no more than 7-8 mm thick with an area sufficient to accommodate 5-6 tiles. With a larger area, the glue will dry quickly. In this case, it must be remembered that the adhesive layer begins to dry after about 20 minutes after application.

A few hours before laying the tiles it must be put in water for better subsequent adhesion of the glue. Directly before laying it should be slightly dried. According to preliminary marking, the first tile is laid and leveled by tapping a rubber hammer with the help of a building level. To place the second tile, it is necessary to lay plastic crosses for alignment. The second tile is aligned with the first tile with a level and tapping with a rubber mallet. In this case, the level should not swing at the junction of the two tiles.

The extracted glue is immediately removed. Similarly, all subsequent tiles fit. Checking the stacking level must be carried out continuously in all directions, capturing and adjacent rows. The order of tiling can be any, but it is most convenient to lay it in rows. If the tiles are laid on plywood, the adhesive layer is first applied to the plywood base, and then to the tile so that the waves from the spatula are at different angles. This will ensure the maximum possible adhesion between the floor and the tile.

After laying the main area of ​​the room, there is a masonry tile, which can not be laid entirely in the area of ​​pipes and other communications. At the installation site, the tiles are used, a cut is applied to it, and then the tiles are cut with tiles. This procedure can also be performed with a glass cutter.

Layout of ceramic tiles

Layout of ceramic tiles.

To do this, a line is cut through the cut line once, and the tile breaks neatly. In case if after cutting the tiles do not fit on the place intended for it, the cutting place is additionally gently processed by cutting pliers.

Holes on the edge of the tiles for the pipes can be made with pliers, and if it is located in the center, then a drill or cutter for concrete. Before drilling, carefully mark the center of the hole so as to chip the ceramic layer. In this case, the material will not burst during drilling.

Curvilinear cuts can be made with the help of a "Bulgarian", equipped with a corresponding disc for ceramics.

If the walls are also lined with ceramic tiles, a plinth between the floor and the wall is not equipped. If the need for a skirting board is for some reason available, the holes for fixing the plinth are drilled in such a way that it falls on the seam between the tiles to avoid the appearance of cracks in the tile.


The drying time of the tiles laid is about 24 hours. After that it is necessary to grout the joints. Crosses for leveling, if they do not interfere with the trowel, can be left in place. The grout is on sale both in a dry form and ready for use. The color of the grout should be chosen according to the color of the tile. But sometimes, based on individual design solutions, the grout can be chosen to stand out against the background of the tile and emphasize its location and color.

Grout is carried out with a soft (can be rubber) spatula, slightly pressing it into the space between the tiles. After the grout has dried, the ceramic tiles are wiped with a special dry sponge, and after removing the grout residue, a wet cleaning of the room is carried out. A good result is a rubbing with a special felt glove, which appeared on sale.

The good appearance and long life of the floor tiles are possible only if properly maintained. Care must be regular and correct. When cleaning ceramics it is not recommended to use hard brushes and abrasive powders. Care should be carried out by special means designed for ceramics.

Interlaced seams should be periodically treated with disinfectants to prevent the occurrence of mold. Regular maintenance of the floor, laid with ceramics, will allow for a long time to keep the coating in good condition and exclude the additional costs for its repair or replacement.

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