Today, the most effective and economical way of heating the floor is considered film insulation. Such a floor with their own hands can be established without resorting to the help of professionals.
The scheme of the device of a warm film floor.
Ways of installation
Installation of the warm floor can be done in several ways, one of which involves laying the system directly under the floor finish; The second provides laying of a floor in a layer of a coupler which is covered by a finish covering; The last method is represented by installing the floor on the surface of the screed, which is then covered with tiles.
If you intend to install the floor with your own hands in the kitchen space, then it is preferable to do this by installing the system in the screed layer. The system should have a layer of waterproofing insulation underneath, while the surface is covered with a small layer of screed. If the heated floor is mounted on the second floor, and the first floor has a well insulated floor, then the screed and the layer of insulation should not be laid.
Schemes laying the film floor.
The film warm floor functions, releasing infrared radiation, which is safe for sensitive materials, among which laminate and other wood coatings. Before mounting, one of two types of film floor can be preferred. The first is called bimetallic and is a polyurethane film with a two-layered patented compound. Its upper layer is represented by a copper alloy with additives, but the lower one is an alloy of aluminum with additives. The second type of floor is called carbon, it is represented by a resistive element, which has two layers of a lavsan film.
In order to perform work on the installation of a "warm floor" system, you should prepare some materials and tools:
- insulating material;
- bitumen insulation;
- insulating tape;
- system "warm floor".
Before installing a warm floor, you do not need to remove the old coating. However, the preparatory work consists in cleaning the surface of dirt and dust.
The surface of the floor on which the system is to be laid must comply with the height difference, which is limited to 3 mm.
Tools for laying underfloor heating.
Checking the surface horizontality before starting work must be done with a level. If the floor has some irregularities, then they should be disposed of, and then dried naturally or with a vacuum cleaner. Only after you can proceed to install the infrared floor.
Despite the fact that it is recommended not to lay the film under the surface of furniture or appliances indoors, this should be done if you plan to change the situation quite often or to update furniture.
Work should begin with the installation of insulation. This will eliminate the effect of moisture on the underfloor heating system. At the next stage, you can proceed with the installation of the thermal insulation coating. This is necessary in order to prevent thermal losses from radiation directed downward. This procedure will help significantly reduce power consumption and increase the efficiency of the system.
The warm floor should be installed with insulation material, which must be well spread and laid, turning the metallized side upwards. Obtain the joints pasted with adhesive tape. Foil cover is not suitable for the infra-red floor laid under the laminate, for this reason it should not be used when laying the thermal film. In order to minimize heat losses, the joints of the substrate must be treated with an adhesive tape that has a metal spraying.
The warm floor has a thermoregulator, the place for which needs to be determined in advance. The most suitable position is a point 20 cm from the floor surface. This is due to the fact that the technology depends on the location of the installation of thermal film and laying wires. Then you can start creating a scheme for installing a warm floor.
Figure 1. Installation scheme for a warm floor film.
The warm floor should be mounted on the surface of the thermal insulation, following the scheme (Figure 1). Laying a film floor, you do not need to insulate the entire floor area, because the system is laid exclusively on the useful areas of the room.
Polyester film is mounted on 50% of the total floor surface area, the film thickness should be in the range from 90 to 150 W / m2, which is true for the case when an additional heating system is required, with the main heat source already in the room. If there are no additional heat sources in the room, the warm floor must cover from 70 to 80% of the floor surface, the system power should be equivalent to 150 W / m2.
Mounting the floor with your own hands, do not place the thermal film in the places where the furniture is located, this will prevent overheating. It is inadmissible to place the film at a distance of less than 1 m from the appliances by the type of fireplace.
In order to correctly and most effectively locate the thermal film, it should be cut by the marks. However, the maximum length of the canvas should not be more than 8 m. When mounting a film warm floor, it is impossible to impose separate film elements with overlap. If the film is one-sided, its laying should be done by turning the reinforced side to the floor. Reduce the length of the wires of the system will allow the laying of elements towards the wall where the thermostat is supposed to be placed.
The film needs to be turned down with copper contacts, then to the edge of the copper strip it is necessary to attach the clamps to which the wires are connected.
In places of the cut, the system will have unprotected sections of copper, and to exclude subsequent damage, they must be isolated, for which it is necessary to apply bitumen insulation. Rectangular insulation film should be cut, giving it a slightly larger size than the treated base, and after gluing the copper sections on both sides. In the film, it is necessary to equip the holes for the location of the insulated area by the method of pressing it in and fixing it with adhesive tape. In those places where it is supposed to fix the wires, isolation should not be carried out, because it is necessary to initially attach the steel clamps. They must be fixed in the following way. One side of the clamp should be placed between the copper strip and the film, then it is necessary to clamp everything with the help of pliers.
Wiring diagram of the temperature sensor.
Mounting the heated floor with your own hands, you need to remove the wires from the center to the joints of the walls and floor, which will eliminate the possibility of pressure on them the finish coat. Wiring should be placed under the thermal film, for which it is necessary to equip the holes through which to conduct the wires, their fixation must be made with an adhesive tape. Connect the wires to the terminals in parallel. At the ends of the wire, it is necessary to remove the insulation by twisting the ends and inserting them through the clamp holes, after which it is necessary to fasten the clamping method. The mounting area must be protected and secured with adhesive tape to the floor system.
To the underside of the film, in the central part of the second section, a qualitatively insulated temperature sensor must be connected. This is an oversized thermometer with a head made in the form of a polymer element. To install the sensor and conduct it to the temperature regulator, it is necessary to arrange the holes. If necessary, place the wire in a curved state in the film, you need to arrange a smooth turn, which will avoid breaking the cable.
Now you can start mounting the thermostat. This device is recommended to be connected permanently, but it can also be mounted by means of a socket.
The main wiring is preferable to lay along the joint of the wall and the floor.
You can connect the thermostat by connecting the temperature sensor on one side to the two contacts, on the other hand, you need to fix the wires from the floor, whereas in the two contacts located in the center, you need to insert the power supply wiring. Ground wires do not need to be connected to the terminal by connecting them to the terminal.
The final launch of the system should take place after the testing. A qualitative film is indicated by the absence of sparks and overheating of individual elements.
If defects were not detected, the next step can cover the floor with a massive layer of polyethylene (80 microns or more), the material will protect the system from the effects of water, and during use, the film will reduce the wear of the system. The film layer must be positioned so that its webs overlap. Now you can proceed to laying the finish coat.
If you decide to choose a laminate for this, it is important to purchase a material that can be used in tandem with a heating system. Otherwise, the decorative coating can manifest itself quite unexpectedly.