Mosaic is one of the most ancient kinds of arts and crafts. In this type of painting, an image or a pattern is drawn from multi-colored small objects: smalt, pebbles, ceramic tiles, glass, etc. The mosaic of tiles is most accessible to the home master. With his hands laid out pattern can turn a standard apartment into an unusual dwelling.
The walls, decorated with mosaic tiles, emphasize the rich furnishings of the bathroom or toilet.
The mosaic is indispensable for facing the premises with high humidity, and its use in finishing the pool, bath or sauna is a classic of the genre. In addition, it is perfectly combined with other types of finishes: painting, wallpaper, brickwork. Original mosaic looks when decorating the floor, the working surface of tables, window sills. From it you can create exquisite wall panels and stone carpets.
Even in the design of kitchens and bathrooms instead of heavy tiles are increasingly used refined mosaic. Its undoubted advantages:
Mosaic tiles differ in moisture resistance, strength and do not require special care.
- elegant appearance, almost imperceptible narrow joints;
- moisture resistance, strength, undemanding care;
- the possibility of creating unique patterns and patterns, color scales with the widest range of colors;
- The possibility of imposing not only on flat surfaces, but also on curved elements.
Tiles, from which the picture is spread, is usually divided into a wall and floor. The latter is more durable, and it is often spread not only floors in buildings, but also curbs, garden and park paths.
Raw materials, from which mosaic tiles can be made, can be various:
- A kind and creative mirror tile that can visually expand the space, make it more light. It fits well with the interiors of small spaces.
- From the usual large ceramic tiles for mosaic is different only in size. It can have a variety of colors and shades, differ in texture.
- Mosaic tiles from natural stone are perfectly processed, thanks to the uniqueness of the source material, it is easy to get a unique image. It can be made of marble, jasper, malachite, sandstone, etc.
- Mosaic tiles made of artificial stone are obtained by mixing crushed natural raw materials with crushed glass. As a result, an illusion of internal flickering of the tile arises.
- Smalta is a glass, which at high temperatures is colored in different colors by metal oxides. Shock-resistant, wear-resistant and frost-resistant material. Creates an impression of an effective refraction of light in a matte stone.
- Venetian glass on properties similar to smalt, but in the glass are added such substances as selenium, mother of pearl, cadmium. You can get an almost infinite palette of colors and shades. This is perhaps the most popular material from which the mosaic is laid.
It is impossible not to mention such an original and inexpensive material as broken ceramic tiles. And buy a whole tile is not necessary. It is much cheaper to purchase the battle or the remnants of such a tile. The ideal option is the use of the remaining fragments of the tiles after repair.
Materials and Tools
Tools for laying tiles.
There are many types of tiles for mosaic, and, accordingly, the necessary for work sets of materials and tools may vary. But these changes are usually small. In any case, the following materials are required:
- Mosaic tiles.
- Grout for seams. It is better if it is colorless with the addition of epoxide.
- Tile adhesive for mosaic. It is better to choose a substrate designed for white tiles. Then the work will look easier and cleaner. In addition, it is desirable to use a mixture with an increased value of adhesion (adhesion).
If the mosaic of tiles is stacked by hand, then the following tools will be needed to work:
- electric drill with a paint and plaster mixer;
- a simple spatula with a width of 3-5 cm;
- rubber spatula;
- comb spatula;
- a Bulgarian, a tile cutter or spring pliers;
- rag and sponge;
- dishes for tile glue, grout and water.
The laying process
Stages of laying mosaic tiles.
The surface on which the mosaic is to be laid should first be cleaned. Scales and irregularities formed during the cleaning process, shpaklyuyutsya. To ensure that the pieces of the mosaic are firmly adhered, the surface must be smooth and smooth. In wet surfaces, it should be covered with a waterproofing compound, allowing it to dry afterwards.
On the prepared surface, a sketch of the created pattern is applied. To simplify the task, you can use the transfer method using a scale grid or project a drawing onto the surface with an optical projector.
First, using a conventional spatula, a tile adhesive is applied to the surface, and then this layer of adhesive is leveled with a notched trowel. The main thing is that the layer should be applied as evenly as possible and carefully "combed".
Do not immediately cover with glue the entire surface. It is better to start with a single color area. Applying the solution to the corresponding segment of the picture, you can start laying out the fragments of the mosaic. One should adhere to universal rules:
- To make the drawing as flat and proportionate as possible, the mosaic should begin to spread from the center, gradually moving to the edges.
- First put on the figures and background elements of the composition.
- The main background of the entire composition is laid out in the last place.
More simple to lay a mosaic of tiles on a grid, where the squares are glued to the frame from the mesh, forming tiles of certain sizes. The grid can be cut, and then paste the fragments where necessary.
Then the mosaic sheet is applied to the glue layer, it is smoothed and slightly sunk. It should be noted that the mosaic sheet can only be corrected in depth, and in the sides it is extremely difficult, often impossible. Practically only one possibility is possible: you can drown or smooth a sheet, after which excess glue usually passes through the grid in the form of small balls.
There are also mosaic sheets glued to paper, which, unlike those fixed on the grid, are glued to the front, not the back side. By the way, for pressing the sheets in both cases it is convenient to use a roller for rolling up the wallpaper.
The final stage of laying the mosaic can begin in a day or two after gluing the tiles. Preliminary, you should carefully check all the seams. It is better to clean them with a vacuum cleaner and moisten with a sponge.
Then it is necessary to divide the entire treated surface into small areas and you can start grouting them with a rubber spatula.
After waiting for the time necessary for setting and drying the grout, you can begin cleaning the mosaic.
Wiping is performed in strictly diagonal directions, easily pressing to the surface of the mosaic a wet sponge. It remains to lightly polish it with soft rags and you can admire the results of your work.
The described process can not be called excessively complex, but it can be called interesting. The result definitely justifies the work and time.