How to level the concrete floor? Almost everyone who starts to make repairs, faces the question of where to start. In order to make quality repairs, in addition to the fact that you need to purchase quality materials, you must follow a certain technology process. To realize the conceived interior in life, it is first necessary to prepare all surfaces. On the walls and ceiling, the finishing material will lie evenly, if they are aligned. Do not overlook the floor.
Floor leveling is performed with the help of a bulk floor or cement screed.
Aligning the floor is a very important preparatory stage, and it's worth taking responsibility with it. In order to perform such an alignment, you can hire a team of specialists who will do all the work quickly and efficiently. But if you want to save money, you can even out the concrete floor yourself.
Assessment of the state of concrete
Before proceeding with the work, it is necessary to inspect and assess the condition of the concrete floor. In addition, it's worth to see the visible defects, cracks and various damages, it is very important to establish whether the floor has deviated from the horizontal and how much. To do this, you can use two methods. The first method involves the use of a laser level. This is a fairly simple process, it will take a small amount of time and effort.
Stages of leveling the concrete floor.
The procedure is that a mark is placed on one wall from the floor at a distance of 1 m. At this mark, a laser level is set and a mark is made. As a result, it is necessary to measure the height from the floor to the outline along the entire perimeter. The place where the size will be minimal, the highest point of the floor. To the highest point, it will be necessary to level the concrete foundation.
If there is no laser level, you can use the usual building level and two pieces of rope. This method is longer and more time-consuming than the first. The first thing to start with is to visually determine the highest point of the floor near the wall and place a mark at a height of 3-4 cm from the floor. At the level of this label, you must attach a long rule, you can use a metal profile. The guide is set in accordance with the level and the line is drawn along the whole length. This procedure must be carried out around the perimeter of the room.
In order to clarify whether there are any higher points on the floor, in the middle of the room it is necessary to use pieces of rope that stretch between the two walls. If they do not touch the concrete floor, you can begin leveling the base.
One of the simplest options to level the concrete floor and get an excellent result is the use of self-leveling mixtures. This variety of mixtures is made on the basis of cement, but there may be other options. This material is used solely to prepare the surface for the subsequent laying of the decorative floor covering and to make the base perfectly flat.
Technology of application of a filler floor.
The process of working with such material does not cause difficulties even for people who do not have the necessary experience. The disadvantage of this method of leveling a concrete foundation is a high price. Therefore, if there are significant differences in height on the surface, then it is not practical to use this kind of mixture in terms of economy. On the market, two varieties of self-leveling mixtures can be presented - for roughing and finishing alignment. The first option is less fluid, this makes it possible to make the layer thickness up to 4 cm. The second variant is more liquid, with its help the base will have a smooth, even surface.
Before using such a mixture, it is very important to prepare the concrete floor, namely to remove all the remnants of the old floor covering, glue stains and various greasy marks. If the surface is poorly scraped, the material may become poorly attached to the substrate, leading to its peeling in the future. To remove dust from the floor, it is best to use a vacuum cleaner, the broom will not give the desired result. The prepared surface is necessarily processed with a special primer, only after it has completely dried, you can proceed to pour the mixture.
- a building mixer for the preparation of the mixture;
- putty knife;
- container for solution preparation.
To prepare such a mixture it is necessary to use cold clean water. The dry mixture is poured into a prepared container with water in small amounts and mixed thoroughly with the help of a construction mixer. It is very important to observe the proportions indicated on the package.
This will make it possible to prepare a mixture of the correct consistency and to obtain a strong quality base.
During the application of the mixture in the room there should be no drafts.
Tools for installing the filler floor.
Pour the solution onto the concrete floor with strips of 40-50 cm wide, to smooth them, you need to use a spatula or rule.
Work is better for two employees at a time, one will fill the base, the other will prepare the mixture.
This is very important, because the edge between the strips should not dry up.
This can adversely affect the process of leveling the floor and the result. The filled floor will be ready in 2-3 days.
This amount of time is enough for the mixture to harden completely.
This method of equalization is used in the event that there are differences in the height of more than 5 cm on the surface. The process will take a little more time and effort, but its cost is much lower. This method can be used also in the event that the curvature is small, with its help it is possible to save considerably.
To level the floor in this way, it is necessary to prepare in advance:
- beacons - this can be special guides, but you can use wooden beams or metal profiles;
- self-tapping screws;
Scheme of laying sand-cement screed.
The first beacon is installed at the highest point, while it is necessary to retreat from the wall for a distance of 3-2 cm. All subsequent guides are located from each other at a distance of 60-80 cm. After installation, each beacon must be inspected along its entire length, its laying is regulated. It is recommended to use portland cement and sand in the ratio of 1: 3 for the preparation of the solution. The consistency should not be too liquid, but not dry, it should be conveniently aligned between the guides.
It is very important to use only dry sand for the preparation of the solution, since a moist material will significantly worsen the plasticity of the mixture. As a result, it will be much more difficult to level between the beacons.
To fill a solution it is necessary to begin with a far corner, then with the help of a rule that moves along beacons, the surface is leveled. If there is a need, when the floor grapples a bit, you can remove the beacons, and the voids that have formed, fill with a solution and smooth the surface.
This screed will be ready in 30 days. The drying time can not be reduced by heating the room, on the contrary, any heat sources need to be eliminated.
In addition, to make the screed as durable as possible, it is recommended to cover the surface with a polyethylene film.