Regardless of the time of the year and the heating season, most residents of multi-apartment panel houses and owners of private cottages want to bring more warmth and coziness to their own home. And caring parents are well aware that children's games on the cold floor are fraught with negative consequences for the health of the child. Therefore, a profitable and practical solution for any home will be the installation of a warm floor. Warm the floor with their own hands to collect is not difficult. But first you need to deal with the types of warm floors and their characteristics.
Scheme laying pipes on the floor with a snake and a snail.
Types of heating
There are only two types: a warm floor with their own hands with a heating electric cable or a film and with water heating from polypropylene pipes.
Each option has its own strengths and weaknesses. Installing the water floor with your own hands is time consuming and quite costly in materials, it will also require a well-designed piping scheme of pipes and the mandatory availability of AGV. At the same time, hydraulic heating systems are very beneficial, as electricity will not be used for heating the water. In addition, floor heating by means of water heating can be smoothly adjusted.
Electrical heating systems are very easy to install, give a uniform and rapid heating. If the heating cable is laid and poured from above with a concrete screed, then the film coating of worries is even less: it is laid over the screed on an insulating polyethylene substrate with a foil sticker. Sensible energy costs for heating cable and film are compensated by the fact that electrical heating systems are designed for short-term work, for example, drying the floor in the bathroom. In this case, the warm floor with their own hands will please their master for many years.
In general, experts recommend for multi-apartment buildings to use floors with electric heating, and for private houses - with water. Works on creating a floor with their own hands in both cases will involve a complex of works on thermal insulation and preparation of a concrete screed.
The principle of heating the warm floor.
How to choose a heating cable correctly? The commercially available heating cables for floor heating have their specific power and a certain length. Calculate the required power, and after selecting the appropriate cable for a specific purpose can be based on the specific power and the total surface area for heating.
Specific power, in turn, depends on two conditions of installation:
- the set heating power;
- heat transfer coefficient (material) of the floor covering.
In a situation where the outer covering is made of cork, laminate or parquet, a cable with a specific power of 80 W / m2.
When the floor is faced with tiles or porcelain stoneware, the specific power of the electrical conductor is not less than 100 W / m2.
All these indicators are valid for secondary heating. In a situation where the electric warm floor performs the function of basic heating, the specific value will be of the order of 150-200 W / m2, depending on the quality of the insulation of the room.
Calculation of cable length
The scheme of the device of a surface of a warm floor.
To choose the appropriate length of the conductor for the warm floor with your own hands can be based on the square of the room and the regulated density of packing. All finished products have a standard length, and the density of laying will actually depend on the area you have.
Take, for example, a bathroom area of 8 m2 and a minimum heating power of 1 kW. As a heating cable in this case, a coil of 80 m length and a total power of 1 kW can be proposed. Then the laying step for the wire is 8/80 = 10 m.
Remember that the minimum value of the stacking step, at which the cable will not overheat, is limited to 7 cm. It will be optimal to withstand the step value within 10-15 cm. When using a conductor of higher power and a more massive screed, this distance can be increased to 25 cm.
Scheme and sequence of stacking
There are models of electric heating cable with one and two cores. To connect to the power supply, both ends of the single-core cable must be withdrawn from one side. A two-wire cable can be wound in any direction. Since it is often used for heating pipes, it is common to lay a cable with a single core in a cement screed.
The heating circuit is laid taking into account the arrangement of sanitary equipment and furniture. Its trajectory is arbitrary, in principle it is only to stick to the pacing step. The cable should not be adjacent to the hot water pipes and heating devices, otherwise it will overheat.
Layout of the cable with dimensions.
In order not to break the cable, you should not allow it to be bent under the radius of less than 2 cm.
The cable can not be laid directly on the insulating material. Between the insulation and the wires for this, the mesh-netting is fastened to dowels or nails, the cable is already pressed to it with wire or clamps. The grid further reinforces and strengthens the concrete screed. The optimal grid cell size is 10 cm.
In addition to the heating cable, a thermostat is purchased, calculated for the power of the selected product. The most common models of thermostats support a power of at least 2 kW.
Sufficient for rapid warm-up and long-term heat retention is the thickness of the screed 5-7 cm.
The total surface area for concrete pouring can not be more than 20 m2 provided that the largest side of it is within 5 m. When there is a need for heating a large area, resort to the installation of several heating circuits with individual electrical cables, at the joints of individual areas of pouring thermal seams are made of insulating materials.
Screeds that tear off warm floors are necessarily filled with the addition of a plasticizer to compensate for temperature expansion. The balance of the solution components is as follows:
- 4 parts of sand;
- 4 shares of rubble;
- 1 share of cement;
- 0.01 fraction of plasticizer.
Fill the solution over the wires tightly, so that no air layers remain, and the mixture should not be diluted much - a thick consistency is welcomed.
Once a day, you must certainly moisten the screed with some water, so that no cracks appear.
The order of the work when laying the warm floor.
The final pour point is about 3 weeks. It is not allowed to connect the cable to the network at this time.
An obligatory condition for installing a water-heated floor by oneself will be the presence of an AGV system in the house. In addition to the boiler itself, a number of elements are involved in the installation. Materials and parts required for work:
- feeding pump;
- Ball Valves;
- off pipes;
- the collector, which regulates the water supply;
- directly heating pipes.
The composition of the pipes involved polypropylene or polyethylene. Polyethylene pipes are more in demand in such work due to small deformation during heating. Common pipe diameters range from 16 to 20 mm. The design working pressure of the pipes does not exceed 10 bar, and the water temperature is limited to 95 degrees.
The collector is a series of tees and auxiliary devices. Individual heating circuits are connected to the hot water supply and return cold. Distribution manifolds for direct and reverse feed are mounted in a separate cabinet. The necessary elements of control and regulation of the system are screwed onto the collector: reduction and check valves, air vent and discharge devices.
It is possible to calculate the thermal and other characteristics of the water-heated floor by having information about a number of parameters. They include:
- the area of the room;
- building material of walls, floor and thermal insulation;
- type of thermal insulation coating;
- type of floor covering;
- cross-section and material of heating pipes;
- boiler heating temperature.
Having all the indicated data and values, it is possible to calculate the total pipe diameter and the laying step to obtain the specified heat output. Such calculations will help to make various programs for designing warm floors.
Scheme and sequence of installation
As the water flows, it constantly loses heat. In this case, the most heated it will be immediately at the outlet from the boiler. To put pipes on the floor, preferably from the coldest areas - external walls, doors and windows.
The degree of heating of the floor from the outer walls to the inner one is reduced gradually, if the laying is done with a "snake". In the rooms, furnished only with internal walls (storerooms, bathrooms), it is common to install a circuit in a spiral from the walls to the center. With a double step, the pipe is turned to the center, and after a distance of a step from the already laid part is withdrawn in the reverse direction to connect to the return manifold. Step at laying is assumed equal to 10-30 cm. To save the pipe it is recommended to take a 30-centimeter step width. In places with a strong outflow of heat, the step can be taken half as much.