One of the main elements of a cozy home is a beautiful and warm floor. Since ancient times, people have sought to create comfort in their home. Today, modern developments allow you to make a warm floor with your own hands.
The scheme of the device of infra-red warm floor.
There are many methods for warming floors, but all of them, as a rule, are based on the use of heating elements in the form of pipes with a heated coolant or cables for electrical heating. The majority have noticeable dimensions, they are expensive to operate and ineffective in the matter of energy conservation. All this can be avoided if we make a warm infrared floor with our own hands.
Operating principle рекомендуемой конструкции основан на нагреве помещения с помощью инфракрасного излучения. Такое излучение обеспечивается при прохождении электрического тока через специальное вещество. Широкое применение в качестве инфракрасного излучателя нашла углеродная (карбоновая) паста. Она активируется уже при прохождении небольших токов, имеет высокую теплопроводность и надежно показала себя в качестве элемента теплого пола.
The scheme of the infrared warm floor.
Structurally, the infrared warm floor is a polymer flexible film in which a carbon-emitting paste is sealed. As a polymer base, two polyester films are usually used, between which the paste is placed. The use of polyester is due to the high strength properties of the material, even in the form of very thin films.
Electric current is fed through copper wires that have a silver coating to reduce their size and increase reliability in the place of contact with the paste. Adjustment of the value of the electrical voltage is provided by a transformer (thermostat) to provide the possibility of changing the power of infrared radiation and the heating temperature. In modern designs of a warm floor the automatic maintenance of the set temperature is applied due to installation on the surface of a film of temperature sensors.
Infrared warm floor has a number of undeniable advantages compared to the previously used methods of floor heating. The very principle of heating without heating elements (with increased temperature) is based on the use of infrared rays, which are biologically and ecologically compatible with the human body, which increases the sense of comfort. Even methods of medical application of infrared radiation are known.
Modern technologies allow serial production of film floors with a thickness of only 1 mm, which is much smaller than the dimensions of other structures (including electric heating systems). It is possible to create a warm floor independently with any floor covering design. In this case, the small thickness of the film allows it to be laid without significant increases in the thickness of the entire floor.
Benefits инфракрасного теплого пола.
Infrared warm floor is a portable structure. If necessary, after dismantling the floor covering, the film element can be rolled up, moved to any other place and reassembled. The infrared emitter can be installed both on the entire surface of the floor, and only in the right place (for example, near a baby crib). Similarly, the radiation power can be provided both the same throughout the room, and different in different parts of the floor. Installation of a warm floor with your own hands is simple and can be done by any person. If the infrared emitters are placed in parallel, the failure of one of them will not affect the operation of the others.
Infrared warm floor can be attributed to the energy-saving system. Sufficient radiation is provided at low power consumption. Such a floor is absolutely harmless for people.
Preliminary work on the installation of a warm floor by your own hands is better to begin with the preparation of a channel for electrical wiring. From the junction box, a vertical channel (shtroba) is made for the wire. At a convenient height, an opening is opened for the installation of a thermostat.
The surface of the floor is thoroughly cleaned from dust and dirt. After cleaning, it is necessary to check the leveling of the surface with a level. The deviation from the horizontal should not be more than 3 mm. If the deviation is greater, the surface should be leveled. Before applying the film, the floor should be dried.
The scheme of the heating film device.
Installation of the floor with their own hands is recommended to begin with the application of a waterproofing layer. This element is not mandatory, but it is advisable when installing the floor in a private house or on the first floor of a building. Waterproofing protects the tape floor from moisture penetration from below.
The next stage is the imposition of thermal insulation. It is necessary to reduce thermal losses when emitting infrared rays down. As a thermal insulation it is better to use heat-reflecting (special metallized, but not aluminum foil) films. Most often the recommended heat-reflecting film is included in the set of infrared warm floor. When making a warm floor under a heavy floor covering (tiles), it is advisable to use a softer substrate from the technical plug as a thermal insulation. It can be superimposed in place of the heat-reflecting film or in addition to it. The thickness of the thermal insulation should be 3-5 mm.
In the heat-insulating layer, it is necessary to provide channels (openings) for wires supplying electrical power to infrared emitters. The ends of the thermal insulation film are fastened with the help of a construction tape. Thermal insulation film is laid back and forth with a gap, overlapping of films ("overlap") is not allowed. When making a substrate, it must be ensured that the horizontal surface of the surface is not broken, i. E. The thickness of the substrate should be uniform throughout the floor surface.
Requirements for laying
Wiring diagram of the infrared floor.
Laying begins with the definition of the layout of the infrared emitters. Such a plan is drawn up taking into account the following recommendations. The radiating film is placed towards the wall, where the thermostat will be placed, i.e. from where the power supply is suitable. It is not desirable to place the film in areas where it is planned to install large-sized stationary furniture. The warm floor is installed at a distance of 10 to 40 cm from the walls. If the room is supposed to have another source of heat, the distance from it to the beginning of the warm floor is selected at least 1 m.
The density of installation of an infrared warm floor is determined by its purpose. If it is the only source of space heating, the packing density of the tape elements should be at least 70-80% of the total floor surface. When using an infrared source as an additional heater, the area is reduced to 40-50%. When used as a local heater, the tape is placed in the right place in a certain area.
To reduce the number of connections of supply wires to the terminals of the radiator, it is advisable to lay the film in one length.
The maximum length of one piece of film should not exceed 8 m. When planning stacking, remember that you can cut the film only in the marked places so as not to damage the radiating filler.
Installation ленточных элементов производится по составленному плану. Пленка укладывается медной контактной полосой вниз. К нижней поверхности пленки крепятся тепловые датчики (при автоматическом регулировании температуры). Место крепления датчика изолируется.
Types of installation of infrared floor.
The contact clips are attached to the end of the copper contact strip of the film. Clips lead to and fasten wires. The end of the film, the copper strip, the clamp and the ends of the wires are carefully insulated with bitumen mastic or ribbons with bitumen coating. It is recommended to press the place of connection of the electrically conductive parts into the layer of the heat-insulating substrate and fix it with a building tape on top.
It is necessary to provide independent parallel electrical connection of all tape elements. Wires are heated in a heat-insulating substrate and stretched to the skirting board. Then they are grouped into bundles and passed under the skirting board to the channel channeled in the wall and through it are brought to the location of the thermostat. When pulling wires through the thermal insulation, they are fixed with an adhesive tape. The wire should not protrude beyond the surface of the substrate.
Пленочный пол укладывается встык или с зазором в зависимости от необходимой плотности укладки. Installation пленки внахлест недопустим. Стыки пленки, а также крайние кромки пленки и теплоизоляция соединяются скотчем.
Completion of work
A thermoregulator is installed and fixed in a hole specially prepared in the wall. The wires from the radiators are connected to the thermostat and connected in the required terminals. The standard connection includes two terminals for thermal sensors, powering the radiators and supplying the general power supply. A grounding is mandatory.
Before the final flooring, the infrared warm floor is tested. For this, the power is supplied and the operation of the heaters is checked in various modes set by the thermostat. The test is considered successful in the absence of sparking and heating in the places of electrical contacts. Floor heating should occur evenly and in a given temperature regime.
Overlaying the outer layer
After the completion of the test of the entire system, the final operation is carried out - the application of an external protective layer. The design of this layer depends on the type of floor covering, as it determines the risk of damage to the warm floor film.
Elements of a warm infrared floor.
The most favorable conditions are observed in the manufacture of wooden flooring. In this case, the load is distributed evenly. To protect the film warm floor it is enough to apply a layer of polyethylene film on top of it.
For soft floor coverings (linoleum), there is a risk of pressurizing local loads, which can lead to damage to the warm floor. To protect the radiating film, it is required to impose a solid element: plywood, chipboards, etc.
More complex protection is required in the manufacture of tile flooring. In this case, a layer of polyethylene film is superimposed on the radiating film.
On top of the laying mesh (not metal), which is attached to the concrete base so as not to damage the radiator and the place of electrical connection. The tile is fixed to the grid using a special glue. After applying an external protective layer, the installation of the warm floor is completed.
You can start making the final floor covering.
In order to mount the infrared warm floor yourself, you need to prepare the following tools:
- paint brush;
- line meter.
The warm floor in the house is comfort and coziness. Virtually anyone can mount a warm floor by themselves. Modern infrared warm floors allow you to solve many problems in your home. They are efficient and economical.