The bathrooms in the houses of the Stalin era, differing in size and high ceilings, have an uncomfortable layout and too worn sewerage. The condition of partitions and floors is also far from ideal, and therefore it is possible to use such a room only after major repairs. Initially, for the construction of similar houses, the most high-quality materials were used, and even in 60-70 years most of the designs can not be easily dismantled. Care must be taken during repair work and great care to avoid damage to other rooms.
Repair the bathroom should be done very carefully and carefully, so as not to damage the partitions with the rest of the rooms.
First you need to carefully assess the condition of the bathroom and make a plan for repairs. The main and most costly point is the replacement of sanitary ware and sewer pipes. Over the years of operation, the pipes have rusted and hammered, the paint has peeled off, indelible rusty stains have appeared around the risers. Dismantling the cast-iron elements will require a lot of effort and time, while you need to ensure that you do not disturb the general sewer system in the house.
To assess the condition of the walls is very simple: if the surface has small defects, small cracks or chips, but the finish is held tight, this means that you can do cosmetic repairs. If the cracks in the walls are deep, the finish falls off in large pieces, there are noticeable irregularities, then more serious measures will be required. No less carefully you need to study the condition of the floor in the room.
Drawing of the layout of the bathroom.
A firm and even coating is not necessary to change, it is enough to update it with paint. Overhaul and complete replacement of the coating is necessary where the floor under the feet strongly creaks, the lining is only partially present, there are deep recesses and cracks. Very often it is required not only to change the coating, but also to make a new screed, otherwise the new floor will quickly become unusable.
Finishing the ceiling has its own nuances. Since the stalinka has ceilings of at least 3 meters in height, any surface defects can be covered with a drywall or tension structure. When choosing the finishing materials, it is important to take into account the high humidity of the room, so that you do not have to re-do everything afterwards. Drywall, putty, paint, primer - all this should be as waterproof as possible.
Preparation of premises
After drawing up the plan proceed directly to the dismantling. First, they shut off the water in the system, take out the bath and, with the help of a welding apparatus or a Bulgarian, cut off all the pipes and risers that have become unusable. Do not knock out the remains of pipes from walls and floor too intensively, so as not to damage communication in the house. Closing the sewer openings from getting debris, remove the old finish from the ceiling, walls and floor. Clean the surface is recommended to the concrete base, then the new finish will be kept much more reliable. Layers of paint and plaster rip off with a brush for metal, tiles and ceramic tiles are easier to remove with a perforator. To reduce the amount of dust, walls and ceiling need to be moistened.
If you completely replace the communications, you must decide in advance how the pipes will be fixed. Most often in the walls break through the longitudinal shtroby, in which the pipeline will be located. There is another way: pipes risers are transferred from the bathroom to the sanitary area of the toilet, then punching in the walls of the groove is not necessary. When the surfaces are cleaned, you can proceed to the main process - leveling the floor and walls.
Waterproofing and screed
Scheme of waterproofing the bathroom.
The floor in the bathroom needs better waterproofing than all the other rooms. Avoiding flooding this will not help, but will reduce damage to a minimum. Laying the waterproofing is carried out before the floor is poured with mortar, directly onto the slabs. For work you will need:
- putty or tile glue;
- waterproofing material;
- putty knife.
Start work is necessary with cleaning the surface from dust and sealing joints. Mix the filler and fill it with all existing cracks, gaps between the plates and near the walls. Instead of putty, tile glue can be used: it adheres firmly to the surface and does not allow the cracks to expand. When the putty dries, the base is covered with a primer. Now you need to close the floor with a waterproofing film. It is laid so that it completely covers the floor and enters the walls approximately 20 cm along the entire perimeter. Since the bathrooms in Stalin are spacious, the whole piece of film may not be enough, and you will have to add another section. The material must be overlapped, and the seam is glued with scotch tape.
There is also a more effective and durable method of waterproofing - coating the base with a special mixture. For this, the joints between the plates and around the perimeter of the room are glued with a waterproofing tape, the ground is ground. The dry mixture is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1, thoroughly stirred and distributed on the floor with a not too thin layer. The walls are also captured for 10-15 cm, trying not to leave gaps. After 6 hours, the coating is repeated. Proceed to make the screed only in a day, when the waterproofing completely dry.
For the screed in the bathroom you should prepare:
Scheme floor screed in the bathroom.
- solution tank;
- cement M 400;
- a drill with a nozzle;
- laths for lighthouses.
To prepare a quality solution, you need to pour 1 part of the cement into the container, add 3 parts of sand, mix well and add water in small portions. With the help of a drill, the mass should be kneaded to a uniform and creamy state. Before filling the mortar on the floor, install beacons, fixing them with a small amount of solution with alabaster. The distance between the slats should not exceed 1 m; The slats are set so that they are in the same horizontal plane.
The solution is poured on the floor between the beacons and leveled with a rule so that it reaches the top edge of the rails. The recommended thickness of the screed is about 4-5 cm; when pouring it is necessary to distribute the mixture evenly over the entire area, not allowing the occurrence of voids.
During the standing and sealing of the screed, it should be periodically moistened to avoid cracking.
You can walk on it already in a day, but it is better not to exert a load on the base at least 3-4 days. It is recommended to lay the finish coat after 28 days.
Restoration of the ceiling and walls
The scheme of a priming of a ceiling in a bathroom.
While the floor of the floor dries, you can continue to repair the bathroom. It is necessary to start from the ceiling, otherwise it will be easy to damage the coating on the walls. The ceiling is already cleaned to the concrete base, so now you need to remove the dust, repair cracks, primer and fill the surface. Primer for these purposes take a deep penetration with a water repellent effect, putty also must be water resistant. If the ceiling is covered with plasterboard, after cracks are filled, the entire surface is primed and covered with one layer of putty. After that make a marking under the profiles and fix the drywall.
If the ceiling is not planned to cover anything, the surface treatment is done more carefully. The first layer of putty should be sanded with sandpaper and again primed. Then finish the putty, again grind and ground the surface. You can start painting after the start of the walls, then you do not have to wash the ceiling of dust and plaster.
In Stalin, the walls were mostly made of bricks, but the internal partitions consisted of boards. Carrying out repairs in the bathroom, you should replace rotten wood structures with gypsum boards. Bearing walls should be leveled with plaster on a cement base, and then covered with tiles, decorative plaster or simply painted. But all the finishing work should be carried out only after the new communications are laid. So, first the wall is leveled with a solution, dried, and then the excess of plaster is removed and primed. While the ceiling and walls were put in order, the coupler managed to grasp well, so it's time to pull out the beacons and wipe the seams with mortar.
The scheme of installation of pipes in the bathroom.
Now the bathroom is ready for finishing, it's time to start building up communications. The hot water supply in Stalinka usually passes through the bathroom from the upper apartment to the lower one, which is not very convenient for the residents. Pipes of cold water supply are walled in the wall behind the toilet, in the location of the plumbing cupboard. For convenience, you can transfer the riser from the bathroom to the technical area, replacing the cast-iron pipes with plastic ones. When trimming the riser, pieces of pipe up to 4 cm high are left under the ceiling and above the floor. Special corners are welded to them, in which new pipes are fastened. After that, the wiring is connected in a closet and closed.
If the transfer of the riser is not planned, the pipes are simply replaced with new ones and fixed in prepared stitches on the walls.
You can strengthen communications with clamps. If the old pipes are in good condition, there is no need to increase the cost of repairs and make a replacement. In this case, it is enough to clean them with a metal brush, primer and paint.
Then you just have to make a bath and install it correctly, and then connect all the necessary systems.
Continue to repair the bathroom with a ceiling painting. To do this, you will need:
- waterproof paint;
- roller with telescopic handle;
- small brush.
It is recommended to buy acrylic paint with latex or silicone. It perfectly withstand high humidity, long does not lose its properties, does not release toxic substances. Since the ceiling in the stalinka is quite high, glossy paint can be used: small surface defects at such a height are almost imperceptible. But matte paint is more suitable for walls, because it is very difficult to achieve ideal smoothness on a large area, and the slightest irregularities under a glossy coating will be seen very well.
After painting the ceiling, the walls are put in order. The best coating for walls in such rooms is considered ceramic tiles. It is not necessary to wall the walls to full height; improperly selected tiles can spoil the appearance, in addition, it will increase the cost of repairs. You can wall the walls 2/3 of the height, and paint the rest of the area. If the tile is matched correctly, any varnishing options will look good.
Tools for bathroom linings.
In spacious bathrooms, walls are often covered with waterproof plasterboard and plastic panels. These methods have their own advantages, but require more time to complete. Laying tiles takes much less time, besides, its technology is easier. In the process of facing you will need:
- notched trowel;
- tile adhesive;
- ceramic tile;
Dilute the glue and leave to swell, at this time on the aligned wall mark a horizontal line for the first row of tiles. The adhesive composition is applied with a notched trowel to the surface, the tile is applied to the wall, aligned along the line and pressed. If you need halves, cut the tile with a Bulgarian.
Stacking can be done in even parallel rows, in staggered order or in another way. After the glue dries, all the seams are wiped with a special compound, remove excess mixes, wipe the surface dry.
In the same way do the tiling on the bathroom floor; except tiles, often use linoleum, waterproof laminate, bulk floor. The most important thing is that the floor covering is located densely and evenly, without gaps, material bends, other defects. At this repair in the bathroom is completed, it remains to install shelves, hang out accessories, put a foot mat.
If you follow the above described technology, coping with repair is not so difficult; step-by-step guide will help to correctly allocate processes and make a work plan.
Accurate and high-quality execution of each process will eliminate the need to correct mistakes and remake everything anew, and properly selected materials will provide room for comfort and durability.