For the decoration of bathrooms, kitchens, corridors, a beautiful and durable ceramic tile has long been used, which, thanks to modern technologies, can take on a different appearance. To make the surface beautiful and high-quality, you need to decide how to properly lay the tiles on the floor and walls, which rules are recommended at the same time? The solution of such a problem is not so difficult, although there are a number of features that are important for durability, the quality of the coating.
The tiles look exquisite and noble, and despite the apparent complexity, stacking can be made with your own hands.
There are many options for laying tiles, but they are based on such basic methods:
- Straight method, or "seam in the seam". This means that the tile will go straight rows, the seams of the upper and lower rows will coincide. The rows are laid parallel to the walls. This option is the simplest, but it is not suitable for all rooms and formats of tiles.
- Laying "in the runaway" - this means that the seams of one row will be in the middle of the tile of the other. This option is more attractive, for it you can use a tile of different shades.
- Laying diagonally. The method is considered to be one of the most attractive, although it requires some experience for its implementation. The tile is laid at an angle with respect to the surfaces of the walls, usually the angle is 45 °. You can use this way of laying even for the wrong shape of the room, masking all the shortcomings.
Tools required for laying tiles: a notched trowel, a flat cutter, a ten centimeter trowel, a "balerinka", a rubber spatula.
To prepare for stacking, you need to take these tools:
- Building mixer with special nozzles, with which the solutions will be mixed (putty, glue, grout, etc.).
- Capacity for mixing. Take a comfortable plastic bucket from under any finishing materials.
- Metal toothed spatulas, which have a different tooth width. For walls, the width is smaller than for the floor. The dimensions of the teeth depend on the format of the tiles.
- A small spatula, with which the solution is simply transferred from a large container.
- Rubber spatula for grouting.
- Tile cutting machine.
- Tips for the drill, if you need to perform round holes (for example, for pipes).
From materials it is required to take:
- the ceramic tiles themselves in the required amount (calculated by the surface area, to which is added 10-15% for cutting);
- tile adhesive is selected depending on the conditions of use;
- cement-sand mortar;
- fugue, i.e. grout for seams;
- silicone sealant.
Lay the tile on the floor is recommended from the second row, on the wall - from the bottom row.
To properly tile the tile, you must first prepare the surface for the work. Any foundation must be level, not having depressions and other defects. You should also prepare the premises for work, the following actions are performed:
- Removed from the floor all furniture, extra tools, the surface is carefully inspected. From the wall you need to remove all unnecessary, including plumbing, hooks for clothes, lamps.
- If necessary, leveling works are carried out, cement-sand screed is used for this purpose, for plastering walls.
- The surface is carefully dried, as the tile can not be laid on a wet or wet wall and floor.
For wooden walls, a reinforcing metal mesh is required, on top of which already applied plaster.
Its layer should be up to 15 mm. Such a grid is fixed with wooden beams.
For cutting tiles can be used as a manual glass cutter, and Bulgarian.
The material in the form of ceramic tiles on the surface of the walls and the floor is always stacked with the observance of cutting, this is due to the features of the coating. To cut the tile, you can use a variety of tools, but usually enough hand tiles or glass cutters. The process of such cutting is very simple:
- First you need to calculate exactly what pieces are needed for registration.
- After that, marking on the back surface of the tile with a pencil is done, the plate itself is laid on a rigid and even base.
- According to the planned line the tiles are cut, at the same time it must be ensured that no chips or cracks form. If there is a need to make round holes, then special cutters are used for this.
If the tile is thick and very hard (for example, granite), then it can be cut by a Bulgarian, but it should be done very carefully. The cutting lines are then processed by sandpaper to give them smoothness.
Facing with tiles
To put tiles on the walls, you need to use special beacons, which are often made of alabaster. This allows you to perform a high-quality and smooth coating, which will not have any flaws at all. Such lighthouses during work are gradually removed, cleaning the surface of the remains of alabaster. They should be set in steps of 2 m - this is the optimal value. To perform marking before laying, you must use the building level, plumb line, ruler and a simple pencil. In the corners stretch pliers-plumbs, after which a cord is passed between them.
The tile itself begins to fit from the lower row, after which it gradually moves upward. The glue is applied to the wall surface with a special notched trowel, then onto the underside of each tile. The crockery plate is pressed against the wall for 2 seconds, all the glue that has come out should be immediately removed, including the surface of the plate. As the dividers are used special cross-umbrellas, which are placed in the corners of the tile. It is necessary to leave space between the seams, it will protect the tile from cracking. It takes about 24 hours to dry out the glue, after which it is possible to start making seams. While the glue dries on the walls, it is possible to perform work on the floor covering.
Finishing the floor
Putting the tile on the floor is not so difficult, but it is important to choose the right position for the installation of the first row. It depends on the option of laying, but in a large room it is desirable to start from the center, gradually moving to the walls. In a small room, it is recommended to start from the 2nd row, so that the cutting is already carried out near the wall rows. This simple advice will make the coverage attractive and quality, it will look harmonious and holistic. If the so-called "carpet" method with different patterns is used, the laying will be carried out completely according to other rules, which for each method are different.
The process of tiling with tiles is as follows:
First put beacons, which will determine the level of laying, as the surface of the facing should be perfectly even. For this, the building level, beacons, thread and anchors are used.
After that, a solution is mixed, which is necessary to cover a small area. The glue quickly deteriorates, it should be used within 2 hours from the moment of mixing. Apply the mortar to the surface of the floor with a notched trowel, the size of the area should be approximately 70 * 70 cm. After the glue is leveled, the spatula itself should be kept at an angle of 60 ° during this work. This will give an even distribution of the glue.
To ensure that the seams between the tiles are flat, remote crosses should be used.
If tiles with a size of 20 * 20 cm are used, then the glue must be immediately applied to the back surface of the tile also with a notched trowel. The tile is pressed to the floor, hold for 1-2 seconds in this position. If necessary, the position of the tile is corrected using a rubber mallet. It is necessary to be guided by the installed beacons, which show the level of laying.
At the time of facing it is required to use special cross-pieces made of plastic, they help to regulate the width of the seam, to make the surface more attractive. It is best for a large-format ceramic tile to take crosses with a thickness of up to 4 mm.
The tile is laid on the surface of the entire floor, after which it should be left for about 24 hours to dry the glue. Walking on the floor at this time can not be, because it is possible a strong displacement of the material, and this will lead to the fact that the cladding will have to be re-done, and this is the consumption of glue.
In order not to scratch the tile, use a special rubber spatula to grout the joints.
The last stage of the work, how to lay a tile, is applying a grout for the seams. This allows you to give the surface a great attraction, protect the coating from the negative effects of moisture. The grout is chosen for the color of the main tile, although you can use contrasting shades, which will give the surface an originality and style.
The work process includes:
- First it takes a small area to remove all the plastic crosses. It is recommended to do this gradually from the far corner, the amount of grout to knead a little so that it can be used immediately.
- To apply the mixture it is necessary to use a special rubber spatula, which does not scratch the surface of the tile. Fill the entire seam completely, no air bubbles, no voids.
- After the grout is applied, it is necessary to wait about 1 hour, treat the surface of the ceramic tiles with a damp rag, making sure that the mixture does not wash out of the joints. The subsequent treatment with a dry rag will take about 3 hours.
- Dried grout should be treated with a special silicone sealant, which protects the surface from penetration of moisture.
It is not recommended to use normal grouting if there is much traffic in the room, for example, for offices, corridors. It will very quickly lose its color. Therefore, in this case it is better to use a cement-sandy, very liquid solution, which is applied in a similar way.
The ceramic tiles are very decorative. It is used for different rooms, although walls and floors in bathrooms, kitchens, corridors are often tiled. Such a tile is very strong, resistant to various influences, including loads and high temperatures, humidity level. To cover fully perform all of its functions, it is necessary to comply with the conditions for laying tiles, all recommendations. In this case, the cladding process itself will become simpler and faster, better quality.