It is difficult to imagine modern repairs without the use of tiles. Ceramics - an indispensable material for such premises as kitchen, bathroom, toilet. The tile is faced with walls and floor.
Ceramic tiles are very popular for finishing the bathroom, because it is strong and moisture resistant.
Floor ceramics are highly resistant and water resistant. Naturally, the question arises: how to lay the tile on the floor? To understand this issue, you need to consider what kinds of floor tiles are.
The assortment of floor tiles is huge. The tile can be classified according to the material, shape, size, installation method and field of application. The material of the floor tile can be:
- porcelain tiles;
- a rock;
There is a huge number of forms and textures of ceramic tiles, for example, tiles with wood texture.
The most popular is ceramics.
The size and shape of the tiles is also striking in variety. Products are multifaceted, regular and non-standard form. The most common option is a tile with a size of 20x30 cm, less common is a square tile of 30x30 cm.
There are small-format specimens, ranging in size from 2 cm to 5 cm, as well as round tiles, with a diameter of 1.5 cm. Such material is intended for mosaic floors.
The tile can be faced both inside and outside. The application of the tile depends on the material that must meet the following requirements:
- high resistance to moisture;
- resistance to chemicals that are part of detergents;
- hardness and strength;
- wear resistance;
- resistance to temperature changes;
- rough surface;
- smooth edges and quality dimensions;
- environmental friendliness.
Almost all of these criteria correspond to ceramics. If you put the tile on the floor correctly, then this surface will last for many years.
Stages of work
Before starting to work, it is necessary to lay out the tiles on the floor according to the color and order in which it will fit: exactly, diagonally or "chessboard".
It is necessary to take into account the width of the seams.
The following tools will be required for work:
- spatula toothed and smooth;
- tile cutting machine;
- building level;
- mixer for glue;
- Ruler and pencil;
- remote crosses.
Technology, how to put a tile, includes such stages of work:
- floor preparation;
- the marking of the surface;
- preparation of glue;
- fixing tiles;
- grouting of seams.
Technology of laying ceramic tiles.
To prepare the surface, you need to empty the room and dismantle the old coating and skirting. The floor needs to be leveled by the level of a concrete screed or polymeric materials. To put the tile, the surface must be dry, clean and firm.
The most important stage of the work will be laying the first tile and the first row. It is from him that he should lay the tile all over the surface. Common options for laying the first tile: from the middle of the floor, from the corner or from the wall.
If the floor is not leveled or the concrete screed does not provide enough flatness of the floor, then resort to the use of beacons. To do this, select the highest location on the surface and put a beacon there. Concerning it, the entire facing surface will be leveled.
To lay a tile follows on an adhesive of a cement base, as it is the most economical and reliable option for ceramics. It should be noted that the glue should be kneaded in small portions: one square meter, as the solution quickly solidifies.
With a trowel putty, a solution is applied to the ceramic product, evenly distributing it. Put the tiles on the floor, slightly pressing down, so that the solution protrudes slightly from under it.
So, when the first tile is laid, adjacent tiles are placed relative to it. Between them, plastic pins must be laid to secure the joints. In the process of work, it is necessary to control the evenness of the rows and the height of the masonry all the time. For this, the building level is lightly pressed against the tile. The solution should be removed with a damp sponge.
The coated surface must be dried for at least 24 hours, and then begin to trowel the seams. To ensure tightness, the seams are treated with a special sealant.
To put the tile, in many cases it must be cut or pruned. In addition to the classical tool - tile cutters, there are many other devices:
- электрический tile cutting machine;
- circular saw fixed on a drill;
- hand saw with diamond nozzle;
- special pliers;
- glass cutter.
При небольших объемах работы для резки кафеля подходит glass cutter. Достаточно начертить на поверхности кафеля линию и провести по ней стеклорезом. По обратной стороне плитки надо слегка постучать данным инструментом в области реза, чтобы разломить кафель.
Manual tile cutting is quite simple in home use. The essence of the process is simple:
- Insert the tile into the hole and secure.
- Cut with a special castor.
- Break in the place of the cut.
Manual tile cutting is easy to use and is great for self-repairing an apartment.
This tool can cut strips more than 5 mm, while the edges are sharp enough.
Electric tile cutting machine is designed for large volumes of work: it provides high speed and good quality edges. The incisions are straight and incisive, which prevents injuries.
This equipment with a diamond disc is able to create figured cuts. Electric tiles are suitable for all kinds of materials, even for porcelain stoneware. Due to its excellent characteristics, this tool is expensive, moreover, the operation process requires strict adherence to safety rules.
The Bulgarian is also used for straight and shaped cuts, while the edges are uneven and rough. This method is simple enough, fast and does not require special training. When working with this tool, you should use a respirator, goggles and working gloves.
Nippers are used to make small pieces of tiles of arbitrary shape. Most often, such pieces are required for wall lining around taps, pipes.
A ring saw with a carbide nozzle is designed to produce round holes in tiles and ceramics. The drawback of the tool is the application of a thermal burn to the tile, which reduces its quality.
When the theory is known how to put the tile on the floor, the practice is much more effective. When there are good tools for cutting and selected quality material, putting the tiles is not difficult.