Ceramic tiles are very comfortable in the bathroom and in the kitchen. The long-term practice of using tiles has shown the unconditional advantages of this facing material. Only the question arises as to how to put the tile correctly.
The scheme of facing the floor with ceramic tiles.
Currently, tiles of different colors and textures are being sold. This expands the imagination. The tile is for every taste. In order to aesthetically decorate the room, you only need to think about how to put tiles correctly.
Features of choice
Ceramic tile (tile) is a facing material based on clay and quartz sand with the addition of some components that are pressed and fired. Available in glazed, unglazed, glossy or matt form. By appointment, they distinguish floor tiles for walls, as well as special tiles.
According to the material and method of production, tiles are divided into the following main types:
- ceramic granite;
Ceramic granite is a material made by modern technologies. It repeats the texture of many natural stones and has a different surface - matte, polished, structural, relief. This material has the highest water resistance in comparison with other types, as well as a very high resistance to abrasion and to aggressive substances.
Varieties of ceramic tiles.
For the floor, such a tile is ideal, especially in bathrooms or saunas.
The clinker is a high-quality single-firing tile at very high temperatures. Such material is produced in a variety of forms. The most commonly used for flooring (especially in the kitchen) and basin lining. Cotto is a porous type, because of which it has a lower water resistance. Usually it is produced in unglazed form and has a color for natural materials.
The usual common types are double and single-fired tiles. Both types have, as a rule, a glazed surface and look good on the walls. The double firing tile (bicot) has a more porous structure, and its use in wet rooms is undesirable. It can be used as a floor covering, and in this embodiment is realized with a matte surface. Single-firing tile (monocoature) can have a noticeable range in size in different batches.
One of the main parameters of ceramic tiles is abrasion resistance. By this parameter, it qualifies for 5 classes (this parameter is indicated on the package). The least resistance to Class I tiles - it is designed for walls and floors in rooms with minimal movement of people. Tiles class II can be used on any walls and floors in the bathroom, and class III - for the floor in any common room. Tiles of a larger class are used in public premises and outdoors.
By the size of modern tiles are available in a wide range. You can choose a square or rectangular tile. In addition, ceramic tiles of various decorative forms are realized. The size of the tiles varies from miniature 50x50 mm to large 600x600 mm.
Table of strength classes of ceramic tiles.
As a floor tile you need to use tiles with increased resistance to wear. On its surface, the legs should not slide, for which the relief on the surface can be used.
Tile for bathrooms it is advisable to choose with increased resistance to the influence of detergents and various hygienic products with chemical activity. Given the mandatory water resistance, tiles should have a low porosity and sufficient resistance to acids and alkalis.
The tile intended for laying on the walls of the kitchen may have reduced mechanical characteristics, but it must have chemical resistance and resistance to elevated temperatures. It should be easy to clean from fats and oils. At the same time, on the kitchen floor you need to lay a tile with high strength characteristics, because of the frequent movement of people in the kitchen.
If it is decided to put the tile in the hallway, then you should choose a tile strength not lower than Group III. Use at the entrance to the room of glazed surfaces is not recommended because of the slip effect. The tile should be easy to clean from dirt and be hard enough.
Finally, the general rule of choice is that the tiles must match exactly in size and thickness, should not have any visible defects (scratches, chips, etc.) and noticeable color variations.
Ceramic tiles on the surface can be placed in a different direction. The very plane of the tile, together with the docking seam, creates a certain pattern, which determines the piling system. It is possible to identify the main types of tiling. The direct way of laying is the simplest. The tile is stacked in parallel rows with offset and without tile displacement in one row with respect to the adjacent row.
Types of laying tiles on the floor.
The diagonal way of laying implies the overlap of each tile with a rhombus, i.e. one angle down. A number of tiles in this case is directed along the diagonal of the wall. The chess type of laying is made from tiles of two colors, which alternate with each other, creating the effect of a chessboard. The mosaic method of laying recommends the use of tiles of several colors. Possible the use of tiles of different sizes. There are many options - everything remains at the discretion of the master.
In addition, a combined stacking method combining two or more types of piling can be used. For example, a ceramic tile is laid on the wall in a straightforward manner, and at the top is a diagonal type of a different color.
The surface of the wall on which the tile should be laid should be perfectly flat and vertical. This is checked by level and plumb. If there are deviations from the vertical, the wall will be plastered. For this purpose, beacons are installed on the wall (on the adhesive composition), the vertices of which are exposed in an ideal virtual plane. The height of the beacons and the thickness of the plaster are 8-10 mm. The plaster is applied in 2-3 layers. In the cement plaster solution, it is advisable to add a glue composition on which it is planned to fix the tile. After the plaster beacons are removed, and the wall surface is rubbed and ground.
The floor must also be leveled before tiling. To do this, use a dry self-leveling mixture on a cement basis. Alignment is carried out on the beacons. The floor should be perfectly flat and horizontal, which is checked by level.
After the plaster has dried, the wall and floor are marked. There are lines showing how to put the tile correctly. The wall must be accurately measured and determined, how many rows of tiles will be laid. If only whole tiles can not be laid in height, then a row of tiles cut off along the length should be laid down, which is what should be noted.
Masonry on the wall
Layout of tiling on the wall.
The tile should be laid using a ready-made tile adhesive. It is diluted with water, thoroughly mixed until a uniform solution (without lumps) in the consistency of thick sour cream.
Laying starts from the bottom. If the first row consists of cut tiles, the tile should be laid starting from the next row. The installation of tiles is best done from the center to the edge in order to obtain a symmetrical arrangement. Glue in the beginning should miss the surface of the wall. On the tile glue is applied with a notched trowel. Tiles are applied to the wall and pressed down by hand. Alignment is done with a rubber kyanki. Excess glue is immediately removed with a spatula.
Evenness of the gap between the tiles is provided by cross-shaped beacons, which are installed at the joint of the four corners of the tiles. The size of the gap can also be set with a beacon. Its legs have a conical design, and, by immersing the beacon more, it is possible to increase the width of the gap.
In order to solve the problem of how to correctly lay tiles, you must carefully control the horizontality of the upper border of each row. For this purpose, it is advisable to pull the control twine. Be sure to follow and for the vertical side seam: periodically check the plumb line.
If there is a need to cut tiles, it is better to use a special device - tile cutter (tile cutter), which allows you to cut off the right amount of tiles of the same size. When using a glass cutter or a Bulgarian, precise cutting of a certain number of tiles is difficult.
Laying on the floor
On the floor the tile is laid like a wall-laying, i.e. rows with the installation of beacons. However, you should start from a far, well-seen corner, and try to lay the cut row in a section that does not strike the eye (for example, under the bathroom). Adhesive should be applied more and use an ordinary spatula.
After the tile is laid on the walls and the floor, the beacons are removed, and the seams are rubbed off. To do this, use a rubber spatula in the seams to rub the trowel into the joint. After 20-25 minutes, the joint is smoothed with a moistened sponge. After the solution dries completely, the seams are finally rubbed off with a wet sponge or cloth.
When laying the entire adhesive composition, which accidentally falls on the surface of the tiles, you must immediately wash with a sponge or a rag.
If there is a desire to solve the problem of how to put ceramic tiles correctly, you should prepare such an instrument in advance:
Toolы для укладки плитки.
- tile cutting;
- putty knife;
- spatula spatula;
- a spatula for rubber;
- a hammer;
- rubber kyanki;
- abrasive sandpaper;
- paint brush;
- paint roller;
Ceramic tiles in the kitchen and in the bathroom is a convenient and effective covering of walls and floor. Its advantages are undeniable.
The question of how to properly tile, you need to solve by acquiring a quality tile and memorizing the basic rules of laying.