Questions about how to put the right tile correctly, excite novice masters for a long time, and to date tile floors remain popular. Well suited tiles, in order to clothe the floor in the bathroom or in the kitchen, but for other rooms this floor covering is not worse than the rest. Resistance to moisture and unstable temperatures makes this coating very durable compared to the rest, and the tile remains aesthetically pleasing. The tiles are washed very easily, are resistant to abrasion and serve after several years of proper laying.
The floor tile is an excellent floor covering, it withstands high humidity, temperature changes, is resistant to abrasion and damage.
Materials and Tools
To lay the tile flooring on the floor you will need:
- tile adhesive;
- grout on the seams;
- leveling crosses;
- putty knife;
- зубчатый putty knife;
- construction level;
- a rubber hammer;
- tile cutting machine.
Calculation of quantity
For laying tiles you will need: spatulas, tile cutters, mortar and grout, level, crosses, ruler, bucket.
In order to independently install the floor tiles, you will first need to calculate how much tiles and supplies for its fastening are purchased. Excess materials and wasted money on them are not so terrible as the lack of a pair of tiles that can not be found anywhere else.
Calculations are usually made by dividing the floor area by the area of the tile. To the resulting figure add another 10% of her for marriage, circumcision and spoilage in the process.
Tiles can be laid in one of 3 standard ways:
- Seam in seam, or in straight rows. The seams of overlying and underlying tiles, when using this method, coincide, the tiles are laid straight, coinciding with the walls of the room, in rows.
- Vrazbezhku - with this method, the seams of the tiles laid out in the lower row are placed in the middle of the tiles lying higher.
- Diagonally. This method is the most complex and requires for the application of great skill. Tiles are laid from the corner to the corner of the room. Many tiles, when using this method, spoil when cutting, as all the tiles on the perimeter walls must be cut. The presence of corners and projections will complicate the task even more.
Options start laying tiles.
It is recommended to use straight lines for a beginner master, since there is less probability of making an error using this method.
A strong fixing of the tile to the surface depends not least and on the chosen glue. Therefore, his choice should be approached, considering all the existing features of the floor and tiles. Sometimes the glue is ready and can be in the form of a dry mix, which must be diluted before starting work on the instructions. Ready mixtures, in order to glue the floor tiles, the roads and at the same time are not practical. The entire volume of open container with glue is required to be used at a time, which is not always convenient. Typically, the tiles in the room are piled in pieces to have all the time access to communications, which means that you need an accurate calculation of the volume of the finished glue.
Options for laying tiles.
Dry mixes allow you to dilute a small amount of glue, from which an open bag of powder will not change the properties. But exact compliance with the proportions at dilution is required, otherwise the glue will not have the necessary properties. In order to lay a floor tile, you can not even use a special glue. Often the coating is laid out on the sand and cement mixture, like brickwork. This is a good and very budgetary replacement for tile glue. Plus cement is that it can be applied to the floor in thick layers, smoothing out small irregularities if necessary.
The solution for fixing the tiles is recommended to be stirred with a drill, setting a special nozzle-mixer on its end. If you do this with your hands, a good consistency will require a lot of effort and time.
Performance of works
Preparation and waterproofing
From the floor surface, before starting work, it is required to remove the old coating, waterproofing and screed. Particular attention is paid to the preparation of corners, to the best of their ability to level them. Slots and openings found in the coating are sealed with a mortar or tile adhesive. If you give insufficient attention to this stage, there will not be enough waterproofing and connection to the floor of the tile. Completely preparing the surface, carefully free it from debris and dust.
Waterproofing the floor before laying the tiles is not a prerequisite, but experienced masters advise not to neglect it. It will protect neighbors from the leakage of water, especially it is important before installing a warm water floor. Waterproofing coating is recommended not only on the surface of the floor, but also partly on the walls, lifting it 10-20 cm from the surface.
Before the start of work, the old floor tiles, waterproofing and screeds are dismantled.
To ensure that the waterproofing has good adhesion to the floor surface, it should be primed. Then, when using the lubricating method of waterproofing, the mixture is diluted with water according to the instructions. On smooth areas, the mixture is applied with a roller, and in the corners and hard-to-reach space, use a brush. In places of joints, a waterproofing tape is additionally placed. Apply several layers, the drying time of each 5-7 hours. From the application of the last layer before the beginning of laying out the tiles, a minimum of 24 hours must pass.
Before laying the tile, the floor surface is leveled. It is recommended to make a very slight deviation from the walls to the center of the room, so that moisture does not accumulate in the corners. This is especially true in the bathroom, where the humidity is high, and non-observance of this rule can lead to the appearance of mildew in the corners. A small leveling is done with a cement-sand mixture, and if the floor is very uneven, it makes sense to fill the screed, which will not let you worry about this problem. Tiles are much easier to lay out if the surface is well prepared for this.
The reference point and its location
The device of a floor with a ceramic tile.
Regardless of the selected drawing, before starting the work, you need to determine the location of the very first tile, from which the work will begin and with respect to which all the rest will be located. The cut tiles look less aesthetic, and therefore they start working always from the corner and up to the wall, which in the room will always be absolutely visible. Starting from the far corner seems a simple solution, but more often than not this is not justified. If the floor of the room is completely opened and the furniture is completely or almost completely absent, it is recommended to start from the center of the room. To do this, beat the location of the center, using a coated cord or rope.
Solution and glue
A small layer of adhesive is applied to the floor. Then, instead of the usual, a notched trowel is taken and on the surface of the adhesive mass leave even grooves, if possible, trying to make them equal in height. The rules of laying presuppose applying an adhesive per time to an area equal to 1 m², but for a beginner and this space there can be a lot. If the tiles are not laid out for a short time, the glue will dry. To avoid this trouble, you can spread the glue in small portions on a space equal to one laid out tile.
If you do not use any special type of tile glue, but cement mortar, then the tile is pre-soaked in water, and only then begins the laying. This will ensure a good grip, dry tile will take water from such a mixture and subsequently quickly fall out or split.
The adhesive is applied to the floor in a small layer and leveled with a notched trowel.
Tile spread, evenly pressing to the surface. If the composition on the floor surface is unevenly applied and the tile lies obliquely, it is leveled by pressing with hands or a special rubber mallet. Finding each tile relative to the surface and other tiles is desirable to check with a level. The location of the tiles should not be checked by eye, as a result may result in a very uneven surface. If the tile protrudes, the rubber hammer handles it, and if it fails, another mortar is put under it.
The thickness of the seam between the tiles should be uniform, for this special crosses are used, the width of which can be chosen from a fairly wide range. If there are no crosses, they can be replaced by matches.
If there is no tile cutter, the tile can be cut with a glass cutter.
Entire tiles are often not placed in a row, and in order to cover all the space on the floor, you have to cut the tile. This is done by a Bulgarian or a tile cutter. In extreme cases, if these useful tools were not at hand, a glass cutter or a hacksaw with a metal can be used. But these tools require a lot of skill when dealing with them, and a beginner in this matter can spoil a lot of tiles before learning to handle them.
Adhesive composition of any type freezes completely and acquires the final strength 2-3 days after laying. Before this time, you should not begin grouting the joints. After this time, the joints between adjacent tiles are filled with a specially designed composition. It is called a grout for seams and has different shades to choose the right tiles to the right and the seams are not conspicuous. It is rare to choose a contrasting color for grouting. In difficult cases with rare color shades, it is possible to add the dye to the white grout.
The use of grout for floor tiles is not necessary and is explained by the fact that its resistance to abrasion is not too great.
Because of this in places with high traffic, such as the hallway, the grout quickly loses its color and is washed out of the seams. For these premises, it is more justified to use a sand-cement mortar, which is liquid in consistency. The deposited grout dries about 24 hours. After that, the floors are washed, removing excess mortar and grout from the tiled surface, after which the floor surface is ready for use.