One of the most popular materials for finishing walls and floors in the toilet and bathroom is ceramic tiles. This is due to the fact that the tile has excellent technical characteristics, it is easy to look after, and the variety of colors and textures allows everyone to choose a tile to taste. The only drawback of this material is the complexity of the installation. Therefore, further on, we will consider how to put the tiles with our own hands.
If the tiles in the bathroom to lay not qualitatively, it may after some time just fall off.
For self-laying tiles in a bathroom you can use tools and materials such as:
- an electric drill with a nozzle for mixing the solution;
- tile cutting machine;
- a set of putty knives;
- rubber hammer;
- ceramic tile;
- tile adhesive;
- a mixture for leveling walls and floor;
- crosses for tiles;
Layout of tiling on the floor.
Before laying the tile, it is necessary to properly prepare the base, that is, dismantle the old covering and level the walls and floor. Typically, as an old coating is a paint or tile, which is in a partially destroyed state. To remove them, you can use a perforator with a special nozzle.
After that, check the smoothness of the finishing surface. Verify the verticality of the walls with a plumb line. For this, a screw is screwed into the wall under the ceiling or a nail is driven in, to which the plait of the plumb is attached. Gruzik, located near the floor, will show the unevenness of the wall. This operation is carried out with all walls.
To determine the evenness of the floor, water and laser levels are used. The laser level is set at a height of approximately 100 cm from the floor, after which it is placed horizontally evenly over the bubble level. After switching on the device, the beam projects a horizontal plane on the walls, which is delineated by a pencil. The resulting plane allows you to determine the height difference. If the unevenness of the floor does not exceed 2 cm, the optimum option for leveling is a self-leveling mixture. Otherwise it is recommended to use a cement-sand screed.
The prepared mixture is evenly poured onto the floor and rolled with a needle roller. This will remove air bubbles from the solution, which will increase the strength of the base. If the differences in heights are significant, then it is necessary to use a cement-sand screed along the lighthouses.
If you plan to lay a tile on the walls, then to smooth them you can apply plaster or plasterboard. The first method is quite laborious and dusty. On the walls with the help of a gypsum solution, metal slats are fastened, along which cement mortar is pulled together. You can start laying out the tile after the drying out of the base, which can last more than half a month. In the second case, gypsum boards are glued to the walls using a tile adhesive. For better fixation, they can also be secured with dowels.
Ways of laying
Calculation scheme for bathroom tiles.
After the preparation of the foundation, it is necessary to calculate how many tiles will go to the lining of a surface, and also choose how it will be laid out. To calculate the required amount of tiles, you first need to measure the floor and walls, and then calculate their total area, as the tiles are sold in m2. Buy the finishing material is recommended with a small margin (5-7%), as in any repair work waste is formed.
When choosing the method of laying tiles, you should know that the most popular are the following schemes:
- Straight styling. This is the simplest method of installation, therefore, in the absence of experience in facing works, it is recommended to use this scheme.
- Diagonal styling. It will look good in a square room. The main advantage of this scheme is that with its help you can hide the oblique walls.
- Stacking with offset. In this case, the tile of each successive row is displaced relative to the previous row by a certain amount.
- Stacking in staggered order. This scheme is considered classical when using a material of two colors. It looks very beautiful in square rooms.
After selecting the scheme on the prepared base with a ruler and a pencil, the places for placing tiles along rows, inserts, borders and other elements of the facing are indicated. Make a plan in such a way that in the corners of the room there were no narrow stripes of tile.
In most cases, a small bathroom and toilet are started from the floor. Immediately before starting the installation work, prepare the adhesive solution according to the instructions on the package from the dry mix.
The main secret of beautiful masonry is smooth seams.
For their production, plastic crosses are used.
Options for laying tiles.
First, using a notched trowel, the glue mixture is applied to the back of the tile and to the floor. The tile is pressed against the base with a little effort. If any element protrudes above the common row, then you can use a rubber hammer. If you see a subsidence, then such an element needs to be removed, add a little glue and lay again. It is not recommended to apply glue immediately large area, because it quickly grasps and loses its positive qualities. It is enough to process an area equal to 2-3 elements. To improve the adhesion of the adhesive, the back of the tile can be slightly moistened in water.
First of all, find the middle of the room, which at the same time will protrude and the central seam. Beginning to lay the tile is recommended from the door. Applying solid elements, row by row, move to the opposite wall. With this method of installation, the trimming will be evenly distributed on the sides and hide behind the bathroom or toilet bowl. After the installation of each row, their evenness is verified with the help of a building level.
Stacking on walls
The process of laying the tiles on the wall.
For the quality installation of tiles on the walls, some additional actions should be taken. When preparing a vertical base, shallow furrows are drawn on it, which allows improving the adhesion of the finishing material to the walls. If the floor has a slope in any direction, then start to lay the tile follows from the 2nd row. To do this, a horizontal line is drawn along the bottom of the 2nd row, along which a metal or plasterboard profile is screwed.
Begin to lay the tile from the 2nd row when the height of the room does not correspond to the multiple height of the finishing material. In this case, the edging tile will be placed below, which from an aesthetic point of view is correct. To beautifully put the tile, do not forget about the technological gaps, the width of which should be about 4 mm.
The wall on which the door is located is finished last. First, facing the corners, then put the tile over the door. It is necessary to make the finishing of the protruding angle with the help of a plastic corner, but you can also sand the surface of the corner tile at an angle of 45 °. Direction of laying - from the corner to the walls.
Tools for laying ceramic tiles.
After the tiles are laid out, you can go to the last stage, ie, grouting the seams. Correctly made grout allows you to disguise possible stacking defects, while poor joint processing can bring to nothing even an impeccable masonry.
Do not trowel until the tile glue has completely dried. First, clean the joints of debris, dust and the remaining crosses. If you use glazed tiles, then you can immediately begin to trowel. Otherwise, the top layer of the tiles should be pre-moistened. To do this, you can apply a garden sprayer.
First lay a little trowel on the surface of the tile. Then distribute it with a trowel. Keep the grater at an angle of 30 ° to the lining. Walk the float over the finishing surface several times. In this case, you do not just rub the mixture, but press it into the seams with a little effort. Do not process the joints immediately over the entire surface of the wall or floor. It is better to work with small areas (1-2 m2).
After all the seams are sealed, you should get rid of excess trowelling mixture. To do this, you can use a grater, which should be worked at a right angle to the finishing surface. At the last stage of installation works, the tile is cleaned of the remaining grout with a damp rag.
Having figured out how to lay a tile, you can make a beautiful wall and floor cladding in the bathroom and toilet. The main thing is to follow all the rules and recommendations of specialists.