Laying ceramic tiles on the walls of the kitchen or bathroom hired craftsmen - an expensive exercise. Why not put the tiles yourself?
The tiles can be of two types: square and rectangular, depending on which masonry will be produced.
Tools and materials
The installation of ceramic tiles is carried out using a universal and specific tool.
List of tools:
- guide profile;
- drill with a mixer;
- crosses and wedges;
- a piece of wire.
List of materials:
Scheme of wall alignment before laying tiles.
- dowels or screws;
- adhesive for ceramic tiles;
- grout for seams;
When the surface requires pre-leveling before laying ceramic tiles in the bathroom or kitchen, additional tools and materials may be required. Alignment can be performed by plaster mixtures or wall sheathing with panel materials on the frame. In the second case, the laying of ceramic tiles on plywood is often carried out.
For continuous leveling of walls, in addition you will need:
- scoop plaster;
- plaster mixture.
When choosing the method of leveling by gluing tiles on plywood, you will need to stock up with the following materials:
- wooden slats for the frame;
- dowels or screws for securing the carcass rails;
- moisture resistant plywood;
- wood screws for plywood;
- sealing coating.
Layout scheme for laying tiles in the bathroom.
Lay the tiles on the wall exactly on a curved surface for a layman is quite difficult. If the wall leaves the top part outwards, you can still try. But when it is piled inside, you should not even try. Therefore, an even and strong base before facing is enough to be treated with a primer, and curved - it is necessary to align.
To level the surface for laying tiles in the bathroom or kitchen with a plaster solution on the black base, you need to put beacons. First, at a distance of 20 cm from the corners, the level guides are fixed to the solution. Between them in three levels in height cords are stretched, and along them at a distance not exceeding the length of the rule, intermediate beacons are exposed.
The mortar is thrown against the wall by the plaster bucket from the bottom upwards and is stretched in the same direction along the beacons by the rule. It is not necessary to overwrite the shells formed on a new surface. They will improve the adhesion of the adhesive to the substrate. After the surface is completely dry, it is primed under the lining.
The carcass rails under the plywood are located at the joints of the sheets and in their middle part. Reiki fixed to the base with dowels or self-tapping screws. Planks are exposed in a plane by level and cords, like beacons. For fastening in the desired position under the slats, wooden pads and wedges are placed.
Options for laying ceramic tiles in the bathroom.
To ensure sufficient rigidity, use a plywood thickness of at least 22 mm. But it's better to take a thinner one and mount it in 2 layers. The joints of the plywood of each layer must be located with a half-sheet offset. Plywood of the second layer is fixed to the first layer through a layer of elastic glue. It is applied with a notched trowel.
As with single-layered and two-layer fastening on the ends of sheets it is necessary to leave gaps: 5 mm at the joints of sheets and 10 mm from the end faces to the nearest building structures. The joints are filled with silicone. Plywood is mounted with screws in wood with heads "under the pot." Their length should exceed the thickness of the sheet not less than 15 mm. The pitch of the setting is 15 cm.
In the bathroom or kitchen, even with the use of moisture resistant plywood, it is desirable to cover it with silicone-based sealing compounds. Waterproofing is applied with a thin layer using a spatula.
To create a decorative effect, the distribution of tiles in the bathroom or kitchen over the wall surface must obey certain rules. The top row is not cut. Laying is done from the bottom up. It is necessary to measure in advance the height of the wall and the dimensions of the facing elements, taking into account the seams.
The layout of ceramic tiles in the bathroom, when laying it does not remain small pieces.
In order not to start stacking from a cut first row with an uneven bottom edge, it starts from the second. In this case, the second row is supported by a guide profile fixed to the wall. From its horizontality depends the correctness of the facing of the entire wall, since all the rows repeat the direction of laying the starting. The bottom row is placed last after removing the guide profile.
Horizontally, the elements in the row are distributed so that the cutters are located symmetrically at the corners. At the same time, a segment of at least half the width of the element should be in the corner. An exception may be the case where one of the corners resides in the peripheral zone or is covered by furniture or plumbing. Then the laying can start from the visible angle.
The installation of ceramic tiles along the diagonal on the wall of the bathroom or kitchen makes it possible to make the deviations in the relative position of adjacent walls, floors, ceilings less obvious. It is difficult to lay diagonally. It is necessary to control the tilt angle of the piling, to perform a large amount of trimming. For this method, square tiles are suitable. When laying on the main area of the tiles diagonally, the bottom row is formed from the elements placed vertically. It is better to look at the option when the height of the bottom row is equal to the diagonal of the elements of the main square. On the bottom row, vertically arranged vertices are cut by diagonal elements of the main field. From them there is further styling.
For diagonal placement it is extremely important to control the placement of the vertices of the diamonds arranged one above the other on the same vertical line.
If a conventional polymer-cement tile adhesive can be applied to the plastered surface, only elastic tile adhesive is suitable for laying the tiles on the plywood. Sometimes used parquet glue. The glue can be applied to both the wall and the tile. The first option allows you to make stacking faster, but requires more skill.
On the adhesive surface, a notched trowel is created with a relief that reduces the consumption of the adhesive and makes it possible to conveniently adjust the thickness of the layer. For plaster polymer-cement composition can be applied immediately on an area of 2 square meters. m and more. When laying ceramic tiles on plywood, the adhesive dries much faster. It should not be distributed over a surface that exceeds the area of 4 tiles.
To maintain the uniformity of the width of the seam, special crosses are placed in the gaps. When there is a need to correct inaccuracies in the manufacture of cladding elements or to compensate for laying errors, wedges are used instead of crosses.
Fill the seams with a rubber spatula. Form a neat, even seam conveniently folded into a loop pruned electric wire. The outer diameter of the wire should be 2 times the width of the seam. Excess grout removed with a damp sponge. Immediately after setting the aggregate, the surface of the liner is washed out.
The wall in the bathroom or in the kitchen, lined with their own hands, pleases doubly. If you have laid the ceramic tiles on the wall correctly, this coating retains aesthetic qualities for dozens of years.