Tiles with ceramic coating can be called a universal material, which was widely used in modern times. The tile perfectly protects any surface from dampness, dirt, grease. Smooth front part makes it easy to clean the room. This kind of material is distinguished by a variety of produced forms, colors, textures, which allows you to transform any room.
Varieties of ceramic tiles.
The tile is not afraid of high humidity, for this reason it is actively used for finishing sanitary rooms and kitchens. This facing material is used for cladding walls, floors, exterior decoration of buildings, balconies, fireplaces, rooms for technical purposes. The installation of ceramic tiles with their own hands is associated with compliance with certain installation rules. But if desired and skillful approach with such a job can handle any person.
Before carrying out the basic measures for laying out this material, it is necessary to make calculations of the necessary amount of tiles, for which you need to know the area of the room. To the total amount is added 10-15% for trimming the tiles. All elements with flaws and visible defects can be placed in poorly visible places. Any commercially available dry substance can be used as an adhesive. The dosage and the features of its preparation are indicated on the package. To work will require special crosses.
The scheme for calculating ceramic tiles.
To make the laying of tiles on walls and floors, it is necessary to prepare a cement solution, special glue and mastic. As a basis, allowing to level the surface, use special compounds. To make mastic, take cement powder, casein glue at the rate of 3: 1. After stirring the prepared mixture well, it is sieved through a strainer. For two days this mixture does not change its quality indicators and it can be used actively.
Tile laying should hold tightly for the entire operational period, for which the cement-sand mixture is taken at a norm of 4: 1.
The main attributes for the computation of this material are:
- glass cutter;
- rubber and metal spatula;
- a hammer;
- plaster blade;
An important tile at this point will be ceramic tiles, the laying of which involves conducting preparatory activities. So, the surface of wood is covered with ruberoid, then with a metal mesh with a cellular base.
Tools for laying ceramic tiles.
On this surface is laid out the prepared cement composition. To ensure such coverage of the greatest strength, the base is marked by shallow notches, which guarantees the stability of the structure. After 5 days the outer layer will be fully ready for work: it can be laid out with a tile.
Important! To level the surface, adhesive compositions are not recommended. They create unnecessary stress, which does not affect the tile in the best way. Over time, it can collapse.
To make the base irreproachable indicators, special compositions are often used. When applying them, the following technology should be observed: with a small spatula, a certain amount of mixture is taken, then it is transferred to a similar large-sized device that actively participates in the distribution of the solution along the desired plane. The indicators of the straightness of the walls are controlled by means of a level or a beacon bar.
Installation on cement composition
The process of determining tiles for cement is characterized by the fact that this composition is filled with a small hill without a sharp top. Further, the ceramic tile is easily fixed on the desired plane. First, a small number of main beacon guides should be glued to the base. This tile will be a guide, helping in the further laying.
A small partition wall requires the use of 4 similar parts. At first, one beacon is fixed, after which another one is installed. This requires a strict observance of the horizontal plane, for which the construction level is taken. Other guides are stacked similarly. If the room is large, beacons are fixed on the surface with a distance of 50 cm. In this case it is important to monitor the same thickness of the used composition, which is equal to 15 mm.
The scheme for preparing the floor for tiling.
Further laying of ceramic tiles is associated with the installation on each side of the rails. A rope is assigned to them. The length of the strips corresponds to 3 m, their width is equal to 1 cm. Reiki are fixed to the wall with a cement compound applied at a distance of 40-50 cm. To accelerate the drying process of the surface, gypsum is often used. The leveling of the rails is checked by means of a plumb and level. Upon completion of the installation of ceramic tiles, these parts are removed, in their place is installed tile.
The uniformity of the distance between individual parts of the material is achieved using plastic crosses. At the end of the work they are pulled out. If a ceramic tile is first installed on a wall, a wooden strip is fixed on the bottom of the first row, its dimensions correspond to the future floor covering.
The cement composition applied to the tile in the form of a small slide must be pressed tightly against the surface.
As a result of considerable effort, the tile is securely fixed on the base. The composition used must fill the whole plane of the facing material and the wall. This will help to avoid problems in the future. The excess solution is removed using a trowel.
As soon as the composition is firm, the joints are filled with a cement compound, mixed in a ratio of 1: 1 with the addition of sand. As an analogue, you can use a special trowelling mixture. Remains of the substance are removed with a wet cloth before it dries.
Layout on mastic
The process of laying ceramic tiles with the help of mastic is carried out according to the same scheme by which the cement mix is installed. The tile is laid exactly horizontally along the line of the stretched cord on a smooth and leveled base. Minor changes of 1.5 mm will be the norm.
First, a 2 mm layer of mastic is applied to the surface of the wall. Then the reverse side of the ceramic tile is wetted with water and smeared with this composition, after which the material is fixed with force at the base of the wall.
The rules for laying tiles on the wall
Layout of tiling on the wall.
In order for the tile to be laid as accurately as possible and neatly, it is often necessary to cut it. To do this, use a glass cutter or tile cutter. Before carrying out such an event, a marking is made on the surface, which makes it possible to make an even cut. After that, the tile is broken by a clear movement. A small part of the material is bitten by pliers.
Covering the walls with tiles can be carried out in the diagonal arrangement of tiles, unrestricted, tightly fixing the seams to each other. The latter method can have a symmetrical or asymmetric pattern. The first option is characterized by the fact that one piece of ceramic tile is installed in the center of the first rows, all the finishing works begin from it. The tile is cut at the corner joints.
The asymmetrical arrangement of tiles originates from the corner of the wall, gradually moving to another row, observing the horizontal movement. In this version of the trim, material is cut off as a result of a junction with another angle. The amount of waste is minimal.
Placing the tile diagonally is considered the most complicated technique, because the material will need to be cut at all corner points, as well as at the beginning and end of each row. For this reason, the method in question is used in rare cases.
The process of flooring with tiles is simple. For this, a sand-cement mixture is prepared, diluted in proportions of 1: 5. Concrete covering is easiest to finish, because the base under consideration does not require additional finishing. First, the surface is wetted with water, then the cement is sieved through a sieve and laid out on a 2.5 mm thick foundation. As this material is absorbed by moisture, it is possible to start installing tiles.
Layout of tiling on the floor.
It is not necessary to take pure cement, it is possible to use diluted in the proper proportions with sand solution. The thickness of this interlayer corresponds to 3 mm. Significant changes in the base allow these figures to be increased to 15 mm.
The room with a small area, about 12 m², allows you to put beacons in all corners with their subsequent installation in plaster. First, the first element is determined, then the second tile is laid out according to the level. Similarly, other lighthouses are installed. As soon as their required quantity is fixed, it is possible to start the outer layer finish safely. As the first row is laid out, the guide tile is removed, the place is protected after gypsum, the tile is fixed with the chosen solution.
As soon as the main installation works are completed, you can remove the streaks and excess of used composition. After a day, the joints are treated with a trowelling mixture.
Most often, the classic white color of this substance is selected, although there may be other variants. To apply the grout, use a spatula with a rubber base. Light, monotonous movements fill the gaps.
The cement remaining on the front part is peeled off with a moist napkin. Badly excreted stains are well washed with a weak solution of hydrochloric acid. A week later, the floor is fully operational.