Principle of operation and the device of a bathroom faucet

Usually, when repairing the bathroom or shower, special attention is paid to the selection of tiles, broom or linoleum to cover its floor and shower cubicle and various small accessories and details. At the same time, the most important element of the bathroom often falls out of sight: it is a mixer, without which modern urban apartments can not be dispensed with. People often do not have an idea about its device, the types of this device and the varieties.

Mixer installation scheme in the bathroom

The scheme of installation of the mixer in the bathroom.

At the same time, it is often forgotten that the main condition for convenient use of a toilet or a bathroom is the right mixer choice, which should last at least 10-15 years. Therefore, before buying this unit, one must at least approximately know its basic types and device.


They differ in the manner of their installation and the place of fastening, the principle of operation of the mechanism that supplies water. According to the last parameter, several types of mixing units can be distinguished, namely:

  1. Devices with water supply through one valve - they are used in the case when only cold or hot water is needed.
  2. Mixers of a normal circuit with two valves and outlet to the shower head.
  3. Instruments in which a lever with a ball screw is used to adjust the water.
  4. Mixing units with thermostat.
  5. Apparatuses in which the locking device is equipped with sensors are non-contact faucets that help to economically consume water.
Scheme for assembling and connecting the thermostatic mixer

Scheme of assembling and connecting the thermostatic mixer.

By the way of installation all these devices can be divided into the following groups:

  • mortise mixers;
  • devices that are built into the wall;
  • units of floor fastening.

At the place of use, the following types can be distinguished:

  • mixers for installation in the bathroom;
  • devices for sinks;
  • units for shower cabins or having access to a hose with a watering can;
  • special apparatus for bidets (sometimes combined with a shower).

Device with two valves

This is a classic type of appliances for bathrooms. In them, the water pressure and its temperature are regulated by rotating the handles of the mixer manually. This device is a chamber of small volume, intended for mixing jets of hot and cold water.

This mixture gets to the consumer through its spout, on which a mesh is installed to prevent water spraying. The device with two shut-off valves has some features:

The scheme of the device of the mixer for a bathroom

The scheme of the mixer device for the bathroom.

  1. To strengthen it, special eccentrics are used for the pipes of the water supply network.
  2. The distance between the underwater water pipes should be from 14.8 to 15.2 centimeters, otherwise the mixer can not be installed.
  3. The most important part (the life of the device depends on it and its reliability depends on it) are two valve heads built into the mixer body. On them, the knobs are fixed with screws. They are made of different materials, and they can have a wide variety of designs, shapes and sizes.

To prevent leakage of water from the attachment points to the body of the mixer of its various parts, rubber or plastic sealing gaskets are used. For normal operation of the device, they must be periodically changed so that there is no water leakage. Since such mixers are widely used, a complete description of the device of this type is given below.

Components of the device

In order to understand its design in more detail, let us turn to the many Soviet-style mixers still available for combined bathrooms. They consist of such basic parts as:

  • a body-chamber in which mixing of hot and cold water jets occurs;
  • slide switch;
  • eccentrics;
  • A spout with a mesh (or without it);
  • decorative flanges - they close the place of connection of water pipes to the mixer;
  • rubber gaskets for different parts of the device,
  • valve head-locks;
  • pens.

Such units are connected to the water pipe through the steel corners, if the pipes were conducted in the wall. The distance between them is selected in 148-152 millimeters. For precise installation of the device in the horizontal plane, eccentrics are used. They differ from modern models. At installation the flaxen tow was used earlier. Before you twist the eccentric into the corner (clutch), you must first put on the union nut, and then the decorative flange. A fully disassembled mixer of this type consists of approximately twenty parts.

Rubber gaskets are installed between the eccentric and the body of the mixer and are needed to prevent water from escaping from the connection.

Scheme of the bathroom faucet

Scheme of the mixer for the bathroom.

Valves-locks are screwed into the main body of the device and must fit very tightly to the saddles of the device. They are fitted with gaskets. The cranes themselves are closed by handles, which are put on their rotating rods. These elements are fixed with screws that are covered with plastic plugs of red and blue color (respectively, hot and cold water)

The mixer spout is sealed with rubber and plastic washers. To fix it, a fixing nut is provided on the body. The switch "shower - spout" consists of several elements, the main of which is a slide valve. To ensure that it closely covers the course of water jets, rubber gaskets fixed with screws are installed on top and bottom of it.

To ensure the slide movement up and down, a crank is used in this design. On the rod of this part there are grooves for rubber rings, but to provide sealing, you can use a linen cord. The crank itself needs to be well lubricated. It is equipped with a switch handle. To fix it, a special screw is used.

On the body there is an adapter for fixing the hose from the shower, which is fixed by means of a transition nut with a rubber gasket.

Latching lock

Standing (protruding) single lever washbasin mixer

Standing (sticking) single lever mixer for washbasin.

Such devices have gained wide popularity in recent years. This is because in such constructions it is possible to adjust the temperature and water pressure almost instantly by a slight turn of the lever. Such mixers are divided into the following two types:

  • units with a vertical joystick;
  • Instruments where the lever is fixed along the spout.

For the correct installation of lever structures, the following should be considered:

  1. The eccentric is used to strengthen the apparatus. On top of it is mounted a union nut and a decorative rosette of conical type (flange).
  2. A special gasket with a filter in the form of a grid is used. It serves for rough water purification and seals the joint between the union nut and eccentric.

The central part of such mixers with lever lock consists of such details as:

  1. The lever mounted on the fixing screw.
  2. Pressed by a nut to the installation site, a special cartridge (this is the weakest detail of such mixers).

Other types

The use of the thermostat in the design allows you to get the desired temperature of the water jet and maintain it constantly. But mixers of this kind are more expensive than conventional options. Thermostat sensors are a weak part of these devices. It is rather difficult to replace this element: it is usually installed in the inner part of the structure, and therefore it is necessary to disassemble the mixer completely.

Using electronics, infrared radiation or ultrasonic sensors allows you to save water, as the locks on the mixer are triggered and pass the water jet only if the person has placed his hands under the nozzle of the device. But such devices have not yet received sufficient distribution because of the high cost. They are mainly used in luxury hotels and hotels. If such a device fails, a highly skilled plumber will be needed who is familiar with electronics.

If you need to replace the mixer in the bathroom, then to dismantle the old and install a new unit you need the following tools and materials:

  • adjustable and spanners;
  • a curved and simple screwdriver;
  • pliers;
  • teflon tape or tow.

Know the mixer device in order to change the rubber gaskets and failed shut-off valves in time (if a standard device with one or two valves is used) during its operation. If the lever version is damaged, then the cartridge may need to be replaced. To do this, clean the seat of lime particles (plaque) and install a new one.

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