The technology of laying tiles in the bathroom is a very important point. It is of great importance how exactly the tiles are laid, and for this a solid foundation is needed. Also, when laying tiles in the bathroom, a layer of waterproofing should be made, since this room has an increased level of humidity.
The layout of ceramic tiles in the bathroom, when laying it does not remain small pieces.
Preparation for facing the walls and the base is to clean the surface of the old tile, dust, dirt, remnants of the solution. After cleaning, the walls and the floor are well moistened, but so that no water remains on the surface until the tile is laid.
You need to decide on where the decorative elements and curbs will be located. The main thing - before laying ceramic tiles is to make sure that the walls and floor have no curvature. It is better to do this with a level. Ideally flat surfaces make work much easier.
The technology of laying ceramic tiles involves the use of cement mortar or special glue mixture.
Cement solution - это самый просто способ укладки керамической плитки в ванной. Но сейчас он все больше утрачивает популярность, уступая первенство специальным клеевым смесям.
Options for laying ceramic tiles in the bathroom.
To fix the ceramic tile to the surface, which is lined, a cement-sand mortar of composition 1: 4-1: 6 with a strength of 75 kg / cm² is used. For better adhesion of the solution, the selected mixture dissolves in such an amount of water to give it the necessary plasticity.
Right before facing, the surface of a sufficiently hardened base is wetted with water, so that the cement milk from the interlayer is absorbed by the soil to a lesser extent. Determining the importance for the strength of the lining has a degree of moisture tiles before laying.
The rear surface is moistened with a wet brush, which ensures the adhesion of the product to the glue or solution. The strength of the lining depends on the width and quality of the joints.
Wide seams give a decorative look to the bathroom, especially when stitching in the seam in the seam. When facing the walls should be able to withstand the same width of vertical and horizontal joints.
Layout of tiling in the bathroom.
Now in many construction shops you can find special powders, which, dissolving in water, form a special mixture for laying tiles. Such mixtures are basically cement with a special adhesive additive, which provides reliable fixing of ceramic tiles.
The main thing when using such mixtures is not to let them freeze, so there is no need to dissolve the entire mixture at once. Applying this mixture, you do not need to additionally wet the tile, because the glue already has all the necessary additives for reliable fastening.
If ceramic tiles are used for wall lining, the seam in the seam does not need to be used because the carefully installed cords provide complete control over the quality of the entire wall.
The level is used only for periodic testing.
In order to obtain identical in size joints, special plastic crosses must be installed between the tiles. They can be different in thickness, the choice should be made based on the required width of the seam.
Check the shape of the floor
After correcting all defects in the base and checking the slopes, it is necessary to measure the correctness of the corners of the room. This is an important part when laying tiles in the bathroom. An ideally flat surface is a guarantee of quality work.
Technology of laying tiles on the floor.
The first check of ordinary rectangular spaces is carried out on diagonals. If the length of the diagonals is the same, beacons are established and friezes are broken. The inequality of diagonals indicates that the sex of irregular shape, it is necessary to take measures to reduce or completely eliminate this shortcoming.
With the help of vertical cords, four tiles are installed in one plane with the first row of tiles. The first two beacons are installed at the beginning and at the end of the second row of cladding, and the last two - at the level of the top of the future cladding. To establish beacons, the same cement mortar or glue mixture is used, on which all the last tiles were put. It should be ensured that the vertical edges of each pair of beacon plates lie on the same vertical line.
Then, at the top of the second row, a horizontal cord is stretched over which the tiles are leveled. To stretch the horizontal cord at the beginning and at the end of the row, two tiles are installed, which play the role of beacons.
The device of lighthouses (brands), friezes
Lighthouses are made of tiles, which are laid on a hard cement mortar. Products are first stacked somewhat higher than necessary, and when reconciling the level they are upset to the necessary mark with light hammer strokes.
Lighthouses are of three types:
The process of laying the tiles on the wall.
The reference beacons are installed near the wall between the main wall reference and the frieze.
Frieze beacons are placed in the corners and along the frieze line.
Intermediate - to control the level of the floor, after the end of the work they need to be removed.
All corner tiles of the frieze row are first laid dry, and after checking the relative position of the corners tiles are deposited in the solution or glue to a specified level. Along the inner side of the frieze rows cords are stretched over which the position of the intermediate frieze tiles located several pcs from each other is controlled.
Intermediate beacons are laid using a cord that stretches between the opposite sides of the frieze. Performing work on the device friezes of intermediate beacons, lay a frieze series with a width of more than one tile. Then, across the room through several tiles, the so-called sags are placed - rows of tiles that run parallel to one of the friezes.
Scheme of laying tiles on a marking cord.
- Solution leveling. The solution is fed to a pre-cleaned and well-moistened base. First it is spread out with a shovel, and then with a trowel carefully level and smooth until the surface is covered with cement milk. The adhesive mixture must be spread by the scallop immediately after application. Prepared in this way, the solution or glue for tiles should be 1-2 mm above the required level.
- Laying tiles on the mortar. The technology of laying ceramic tiles is quite a difficult moment. Elements are laid by strips with a square on an aligned layer of cement or glue. The left hand is laid on the element, precipitated by light hammer blows, at the same time it is necessary to ensure that the width of the seam between the products is minimal. Square floor elements are seamed by the seam in the seam, while the longitudinal and transverse seams should not deviate from the specified direction. To fix the seam, the products placed on the solution during the first 15-30 minutes can be slightly moved aside with the sharp end of the trowel. After that, they are leveled with light hammer blows. Correctness of laying is checked by conducting a trowel on the surface. If the trowel touches the edge of an element, the last tile is removed, placed in its original place and deposited. When placed on an interlayer of the next row, the common seam is aligned using the rule. For products up to 200 mm, the joint thickness should not exceed 2 mm.
- Seam processing. To process the seams of ceramic tiles should be started no less than a day after the completion of work on its laying. First it is necessary to clean it from the remains of cement or glutinous mortar, and then fill it with a special rubber spatula with the grout of the desired color. For the processing of joints between the walls and the floor, it is better to use a special sealant. It reliably protects against moisture ingress. Sealant should be selected taking into account the color of the entire laid structure.
Durability of the liner depends on proper operation and maintenance. During operation, care should be taken to maintain the filling of joints, in cases of damage, to update. Since the tile is very sensitive to scratches, you can not drag heavy things over its surface. Do not use aggressive agents when washing the tile, which can lead to a change in its color.