Ceramic tiles today are increasingly replacing the usual tile. The installation of porcelain tiles on the floor is possible and with their own hands. By composition, appearance and properties, this flooring is more modern. It is made on the basis of quartz and a mixture of clay with feldspar, a variety of mineral dyes. This composition is compressed in molds, after which it is fired in special furnaces. The result is a strong and beautiful tile, which in its appearance almost does not differ from the natural stone.
The porcelain tiles are wear-resistant, not afraid of moisture, temperature drops, shocks.
Porcelain is resistant to wear, various kinds of loads, it is not afraid of moisture, temperature drops, shocks. In addition, the coating can serve for many years, without losing its appearance, brightness. The installation of porcelain stoneware differs from the installation of conventional tiles, although it is impossible to name a complex technology. Before you start working, you need to prepare the appropriate adhesive composition, choose the options for laying ceramic granite on the floor. Actual variants such as the usual straight, in staggered order, diagonally. It is important to determine immediately whether the joints will be observed or the coating will be seamless, i. E. with minimal gaps between individual tiles.
Scheme of concrete floor screed before laying ceramic tiles.
Start the work with the marking and preparation of tools. The laying technology assumes that the floor must be flat. Therefore, it is preliminary required to inspect the base, if necessary, sealing of cracks, potholes is performed. At significant roughnesses the cement screed is poured. The granite can be laid on the floor in this case only after the screed has dried.
After drying, the surface is covered with a layer of a special primer, it is applied with a brush or roller. If the screed is not applied, then small irregularities can be removed with a special self-leveling filler. It is applied to a fresh primer, i.e. wait until it dries, there is no need. The technology of laying ceramic granite assumes that the choice of puttying is carried out taking into account defects and floor material:
- for wood, a silicone mixture is used;
- in the presence of small cracks - Rhenish putty;
- universal can be called anhydrite, gypsum plaster.
You will need the following set of tools:
- a container for building mixtures (glue, primer, putty, cement screed, if it will be used);
- electric drill, special nozzle for mixing the solution;
- spatula usual smooth and gear, rubber;
- Master OK;
- building level;
- tool for cutting tiles.
Stacking of porcelain tiles
Tools used in tile work.
Stacking of porcelain tiles на пол осуществляется с использованием специального клея на основе цемента. Замешивается состав небольшими порциями. Обязательно надо ознакомиться с инструкцией на упаковке, так как время использования массы может составлять от 1,5 до 8 часов. Наносится клей зубчатым шпателем, размер его зубьев зависит от параметров плитки.
For example, for ceramic granite with sides of 20 * 20 cm, it is best to use a spatula whose teeth are equal to 8 mm, but for a 30 * 30 cm tile a tool with 12-15 mm teeth is suitable. The layer of glue is most often applied only to the surface of the floor, but if there are requirements for strength, then it is best to apply it on the reverse side of the ceramic granite too. A similar method is used for large-format material. The adhesive layer should be 2-5 mm, it is spread with a spatula. For walls, a thinner layer can be used, a layer of up to 5 mm is suitable for the floor.
The glue is applied to a small surface of approximately 1 m² so that you can manage to lay the material in 15 minutes. After the glue is applied to the tile, it should be firmly pressed to the base for a couple of seconds. It is important to ensure that during work under the surface of the material no air voids remain, otherwise the coating will not last for a long time. The tile is pressed, it can be slightly moved from side to side, so that all the air voids are eliminated. On each side there are 2 plastic cross-dividers, further granite laying continues. Usually glue freezes for a day, but the material is gaining strength after a couple of weeks. Depending on the type of glue, the joints can be started to plan after 6-24 hours after the styling has been done.
Layout of tiles from porcelain tiles.
After the laying of the tile is completed, it is necessary after some time to proceed to the jointing, i.e. grouting of seams. For this, a special mixture is used, it allows filling of seams, the thickness of which is 5-20 mm. The composition dries quickly, its surpluses are easily removed from the surface by a damp sponge in the shortest time. The color of the joint mix can be different, but there are no special restrictions. Experts advise using gray shades, as when dirt gets on them there are no stains. But for jointing it is possible to apply also the tinted compositions which will perfectly be combined with a ceramic granite. It can be beige, sand, burgundy and other shades.
The jointing of ceramic tiles is carried out in this way:
- You must first prepare the solution. The dry mix is diluted with water according to the instructions given by the manufacturer, after which it is brought to the required consistency.
- The mixture is poured onto the surface of the tiles in small portions, after which the rakley is distributed. Keep the tool so that the composition is distributed obliquely in relation to the seams. It should be ensured that the mixture completely fills all the seams between the tiles.
- Using water and a rubber spatula, it is necessary to treat the surface in such a way that there is no surplus of the mixture on the porcelain stoneware, then remove all traces of the grout with a dry rag.
After laying ceramic granite on the floor and trowel work, it is necessary to carefully coat the surface with a fugue. This will reduce the drying time. Drying is carried out at a temperature of 5-30 ° C, about another 2-4 days on the surface is not recommended to give any loads, so that the glue and fugue had to dry properly.
To install the tiles correctly, you must follow certain rules of work. They are not complicated, but they provide attractiveness, accuracy and long service life.
The choice of the method of laying ceramic granite tiles in the corners depends on the master's experience, the presence of the tool and the condition of the working surface.
- When laying tiles, it is necessary to observe a temperature regime of 5-40 ° C of heat. In severe cold, the material is not used for work, since the adhesive will lose its properties.
- The cement contains cement, so gloves, a protective mask and goggles must be worn during operation. All excess solutions from the front of the coating should be immediately cleaned with a damp sponge or rags, otherwise the porcelain will lose its attractive appearance.
- The adhesive can be applied not only to the base, but also to the back of the tile. Dry mix should be purchased with this in mind, otherwise it will not be enough.
- Some argue that the most attractive floor covering is obtained when laying without seams, but it is not. Tiles are not recommended so stack, it is the seams that provide the elasticity and stability of the coating to various impacts.
- The tiling is laid using special cross-dividers. They have different widths, but even the minimum clearance ensures that the tiles do not crack when heated and humidity.
- It should be remembered that the mixed solution retains all its properties for only a short period. Depending on the manufacturer, the time interval can be equal to 1,5-8 hours. That's why you need to mix small portions according to the manufacturer's instructions, use them immediately, and not leave for later.
- On the surface of the base foundation, a small part of the glue should be applied, it should be sufficient for laying ceramic granite tiles in about 10-15 minutes.
Porcelain is a material that is increasingly used for finishing the floor, replacing the traditional tile.
The technology of its laying is a little different, during work it is necessary to show attentiveness.
Especially it concerns mixing of glue and its use. It is recommended to pay attention to the instructions of the manufacturer, since the time of use of the finished mixture can vary significantly.