To date, ceramic tiles are one of the most popular floor coverings in the world. And this is not accidental, because this building material has high strength and durability, as well as an attractive appearance. In addition, ceramic tiles are resistant to abrasion and do not absorb water and dirt, which makes it easy and easy to care for. And thanks to the latest technology and the creation of special adhesives and grouts, laying the tiles on the floor has ceased to be a difficult and time-consuming work. Now this task is possible for any person who does not even have much knowledge and experience in the construction business.
Correctly laid tiles reliably protects the floor from moisture and dirt.
- tiles for cladding;
- priming composition;
- tiled crosses;
- trowelling mass.
The scheme of the device of facing of a floor in a bathroom.
- building level;
- tile cutting machine;
- a set of putty knives;
Laying the tile always begins with the preparation of the floor surface. As a rule, this preparation consists in leveling the floor with a special cement-sand screed, which is performed as follows:
- Initially, the floor surface is carefully cleaned of dirt, dust, debris, lime, rusty and greasy spots.
- Then, using a mortar, all cracks and crevices in the floor are embedded.
- After that, a special grinding machine carefully removes all excess cement.
- Further, after the screed has completely dried, its surface is carefully treated with a primer to improve the adhesion between the floor and the tile adhesive.
Before laying the tiles, a floor marking must be made.
Floor tiles are most often used for flooring in damp areas, such as a bath, shower or loggia. Therefore, before making a screed in such rooms, it is necessary to apply a layer of special waterproofing material to the floor.
Select the floor material should be taking into account all the features of the room and the nature of its operation. In this case, we should mainly focus on the classification of tiles in terms of the degree of abrasion. So, for a room that usually goes without shoes, for example, in a living room or a dining room, you should purchase a third class tile, and, for example, for a hallway, where the floor is covered with much more load, only the fourth.
In addition to this, other characteristics of tiles are of great importance when choosing:
- Tiles in the shower and bathroom should have an extremely low water absorption index and a relief surface.
- But for the kitchen should choose a tile that is resistant to the effects of various chemical compounds. After all, the kitchen floor is more prone to various pollution, including greasy stains, which can be washed only with the help of strong detergents.
Floor marking scheme for laying tiles.
In order for the material to hold well and not to lag behind the floor surface, it is necessary to choose the right glue, which corresponds to all characteristics of the room, namely:
- For rooms with high humidity it is necessary to purchase glue intended for outdoor work. This adhesive has a high resistance to moisture.
- For dry rooms, different compositions are suitable, but it is better to choose glue intended for internal work.
Before use, the dry mixture must be diluted with water in a proportion of 2: 1.
Laying tiles can be done in three main ways:
Comparative table of characteristics of tile coatings.
- Straight rows (the so-called seam in the seam) - the rows formed as a result of stacking must be straight and strictly horizontal. Tiles in this case should be chosen the same size, but a small spread is still allowed.
- "Offshoring" (or "dressing") - in this case each next row of cover is placed in such a way that the middle of the tile is located under the interlacing seam of the overlying row.
- Diagonally - this method of laying floor tiles is most often used for flooring in large rooms. He, without a doubt, is the most difficult and requires certain knowledge and skills. To carry out the diagonal type of laying, it is necessary to purchase a sufficiently large number of square and well-calibrated floor tiles. In this case, the rows of tiles are laid diagonally, that is, the angle of each subsequent tile must touch the angle of the higher tile. In this case, the rows of tiles should be absolutely even, as when stitching the seam.
Process of marking
Before you begin laying floor tiles, you need to mark the floor. It is performed as follows:
- First you need to measure the walls in the room, find their midpoints and mark these places with chalk.
- Next, you should carefully rub the marking cord with white chalk, then tighten it between opposite walls in the previously marked places, and then release. In this case, there will remain axial lines on the floor, which will be longitudinal and transverse markings for laying.
- If the laying is done diagonally, then in this case it is also necessary to note the diagonal line.
- If the markup was executed according to all rules, then the diagonal and axial lines should intersect at one point.
Technology of laying tiles on the floor.
To determine the exact number of tiles - both whole and cut, which will be required for flooring, it is necessary to make a layout. This can be done by hand on a sheet of paper or using a special computer program. You should always buy a tile with a small margin.
First, the floor tiles must be laid on the floor "on a dry" according to the scheme drawn up. In this case, between the tiles should be left a small space for future joints. This will immediately identify all the shortcomings of the scheme and change them even before the beginning of the cladding.
To start laying the flooring always follows from the whole floor tiles. Start this work with a corner located on the opposite side of the doorway.
- Adhesive mass applied to the floor area of no more than 1m². And if the inexperienced master performs the laying, then in this case the glue should be applied to the area equal to one tile. Further, the adhesive mass must be leveled with a special notched trowel.
- Then, the tile is laid on the adhesive layer, carefully leveled and checked for its horizontality with the help of the building level. Finally, they tap the tile with a rubber mallet.
- Next to the first tile lay the second, which is also carefully aligned. After that, you need to take the level and check if both tiles are on the same level. If the second was slightly higher, then you need to push it until it rises in line with the first, and the extra glue mass will not be squeezed out. And the second tile is located below, then you need to remove it and add the necessary amount of glue.
- Lay the floor tiles should be with open seams. To this end, plastic spacers are inserted into the spaces between the plates.
- The trimmed tile is best laid at the very end, when the work with the whole is finished. Depending on the quality and type of glue, the tile position can be adjusted for 15 minutes or even half an hour.
- 24 hours after completion of the installation, when the adhesive composition has already begun to polymerize, it is necessary to remove all dividing crosses.
- After the adhesive composition has completely dried, you can begin grouting the seams.
As a rule, the glue dries up after 24 hours, but it is advisable to start the grouting no earlier than 36 hours later.
Works on grouting
The last stage of tile laying is the grouting of the interlacing seams. To do this, the space between the plates is filled with a special trowelling compound - fugue, which can be both white and colored. Before use, this composition must be carefully kneaded until it acquires the consistency of sour cream. To do this, the dry mixture must be diluted with pure water in a proportion of 4: 1. The prepared composition can be used for grouting joints only for 2 hours. To fill all the interlacing space with a trowelling compound, use a special rubber trowel.
Such a tool will never scratch the surface of a tile, unlike a metal trowel. In addition, to ensure that the trowel has acquired the necessary shade, close to the color of the tile, the necessary pigments are added to it and mixed thoroughly.