The tap is referred to the types of stop valves. Through it in our housing gets water. A faucet, or mixer, is a certain mechanism that is necessary in every home.
Diagram of a water tap.
Designers constantly create the latest versions of its design, but the internal structure of the crane is not distinguished by its variety. Having studied its device, it will be easier to choose the right model and even install it yourself or make repairs. Sometimes it becomes necessary to replace the mixer.
The scheme of the device of the valve crane.
The reason may be different:
- breakdown of the old device;
- desire to change it to a new one.
To do this, you need to have the right tools and know how the water tap works. Until recently, only two versions were on sale: a valve device with one lever or two. A simple ball valve was in most cases put in the heating system. There are several types of home products:
- with horizontal water supply;
- vertical water supply;
All the constructions with which you can adjust the water jet in the pipeline, as well as completely stop it, and there are cranes. Current products are mixers - devices with two pipes supplied to them, for cold and hot water. Their mechanism makes it possible to control the water jet and its temperature.
Regardless of external differences, the principle of operation and the basic composition of the working elements of all devices are approximately the same. These products include:
The scheme of the device of the ball mixer.
- a body with a water jet regulating element positioned therein;
- a spout, in other words a spout, through which water flows;
- A valve or lever that controls the mechanism;
- a locking device in the housing;
- mounting screw;
- stuffing box and packing;
When the handle of the device is turned on, the spindle is screwed in and water is cut off. The gasket is pressed against the valve seat, thereby creating an impenetrable barrier to penetrate the coolant.
In the device of all mixers there is a special detail, located at the top of the spindle, gland bushing. It prevents the penetration of water upward.
The stuffing box helps to isolate water.
The material has waterproof properties, due to which the product does not leak water.
Often the spout has a divider or aerator, which is a grid, more evenly distributing the water jet. The main difference in the variety of faucets and faucets is the design of the locking device and levers.
Such valve valves are of simple construction, have great reliability. Single-purpose models are used for products with only hot or cold water. In the case of brass or copper is a locking device, which has the form of a crane-axle:
Scheme single lever mixer with ball mechanism.
With a worm-type version, the valve is controlled by a rod, which pushes a gasket of leather or rubber to a special "saddle". Most often, such a crane breaks due to the wear of the gasket. To eliminate it, change it to a new one.
The ceramic crane of ceramic has two plates with a lumen. One is fixed motionless, the second is rotated by means of a valve. The lumens in them, when they coincide, contribute to the flow of water into the spout. These devices break very rarely, because ceramics have a high durability.
It happens that the spout of a similar faucet, together with the body, is cast as a monolithic device, then it becomes stationary. However, valve valves with a nozzle resembling a tube are more popular. In the body of the structure it is fixed in an upright position, by means of two rings-hinges made of plastic, held in special holes. There are on sale devices made of steel and brass. Brass has better resistance to corrosion.
Design with two valves
In houses where there is a hot water supply, the best option is to use two-valve mixers. In their design, similar crane-axle boxes are used. Through one locking device comes hot water, the second - a cold one. These devices are controlled by valves.
Ball products have been used for a long time. This device is quite elementary, which makes it easy to block the water jet. The mixing valve contains a ball-and-socket maneuvering valve element, which is installed in the body cavity.
There are three holes in it. Two holes serve for the entry through them into the cavity of the cartridge of cold and hot water, and the third for the mixed flow. Control is carried out with only one lever. A good ball valve by weight should be heavy.
Devices with thermostat
In the mechanism of such a faucet, as a mixer with a thermostat, there is a thermocouple. With the help of it, cold and hot water are controlled to bring it to the desired temperature. Outside, there is a knob for setting the temperature. Also there is a lever for controlling the pressure of water.
Contactless products are often placed in the bathrooms of large institutions. They are equipped with a photocell. It works when the hands are put under it. By removing them, the photocell disconnects the water jet. The special rod located on the body of the product serves to regulate the temperature of the water and its head.