The quality of tap water has always created controversy over its use. Water from the tap is not drinkable due to its chemical composition and treatment with disinfectants.
The harm of water from the tap is that because of its treatment with chlorine, it loses all the necessary trace elements.
The water that flows through the pipelines is treated with chlorine to exclude the appearance of pathogens in it. Of course, such an event is justified from a sanitary point of view. Water from the tap can be washed, used in everyday life, but no more. In order for this liquid to be usable, it must be properly cleaned.
Water is the basis of our life. A person consists of 80% water, and a day he needs to drink at least two liters. A sufficient amount of liquid drunk cleanses the body, encourages all organs to work intensively, sates the blood with all the necessary trace elements, and also participates in the metabolic processes of cells.
Harmfulness of water
Is it expedient to replenish the necessary quantity of liquid with water from the tap? What terrible and unacceptable does this transparent liquid contain with a specific smell?
Water purification system.
Water from the tap is dead water deprived of all the necessary trace elements, unlike natural water from underground sources, which goes through all stages of filtration naturally without losing its valuable qualities.
The water from the tap contains organochlorine compounds, the number of which reaches the critical level of 300! Moreover, this level of chlorine does not depend on the initial degree of contamination of water.
This does not mean that the deterioration of health will occur immediately after drinking chlorinated water. The fact is that in the body there is a gradual accumulation of carcinogenic substances that are formed when the organics are combined with chlorine. These substances are called trihalomethanes, and they contribute to the formation of cancer cells.
Many are convinced that it is enough to boil tap water to kill all harmful substances in it. But when boiled chlorinated water forms a strong poison - dioxin.
Disinfection of water can not only through chlorination. An excellent purifier of water from various microbes is activated charcoal. The device of many filters is based on purification by this substance.
Scheme of water ozonation.
However, the purification of water does not mean its complete sterilization. Distilled water is not useful. Drinking fluid should contain such trace elements: fluoride, iodine, calcium, iron, magnesium, mineral salts. The content of mineral salts in drinking water should be in the range: 50-1500 mg / l.
The predominance of certain elements in the water can be defined as follows:
- The presence of mineral, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid is indicated by green and brown stains on the dishes;
- the presence of organic substances is evidence of a musty earthy smell;
- salty taste indicates a high content of sodium and magnesium salts;
- Alkaline water on aluminum cookware forms stains;
- corrosion of the stainless shell comes from the high chloride content of the tap water;
- a high amount of iron is expressed in a metallic taste;
- chemical odor appears when industrial emissions fall into the water supply system;
- muddy water with a reddish tint indicates a malfunction of the pump and the presence of rust in the pipes.
Types of filters
Three-stage filter for washing.
There are several types of filters:
- The pitcher filter.
- Crane Attachment
- Desktop filter.
- Station for water purification.
The jug type device is a container into which the upper bowl is inserted. Water is poured into this bowl, at the bottom of which is a replaceable cartridge. Passing through the cleaning element, the water of the purified jar is already flowing into the cavity of the large jug.
Jugs are on 150-400 liters. The speed of cleaning also varies: from 0.1 to 0.5 liters per minute.
This device is universal and convenient: it does not require additional mechanisms for connection, as well as a special place. All that is necessary for this device: every three months, change the replacement cartridge.
The nozzle is a keg water purifier, which is put on the tap just before cleaning. This device is small in size, which allows it to take with you everywhere. To attach the nozzle to any type of crane, there are various adapters.
This filter is low-performance: from 0.2 to 0.5 liters per minute. The duration of operation of the device is also small: 300-700 liters, which is enough for 2-3 months.
The scheme of using a pitcher filter.
Through the nozzle it is convenient to adjust the water head. The drawback of the device is the risk of water overflow, which can lead to a flood. To prevent this from happening, you need to install a container for the filtered water.
Desktop flow-through filters are a casing with a faucet. This device is connected with a special hose to a conventional tap.
These instruments are very productive: they are able to process up to 2 liters of water per minute. The degree of liquid purification is high enough. The device is designed for 3-4 liters of water, which exceeds the two previous types of filters.
The drawback of the device is its cumbersomeness and its attachment to the crane. It must be connected each time before use, and then disconnected. Some models include a wall mount, which saves a lot of space for it.
Filter stations are a system of cylindrical tanks that perform different cleaning functions and have a separate water tank.
These devices are installed under the sink, on top of which an additional tap is output. From it comes already purified water. This device has the best degree of cleaning and great performance.
Degrees of purification
All filtering devices have one or more degrees of purification:
- removal of mechanical particles;
- odor absorption;
- removal of ions of salts of heavy metals;
- oxidation - removal of iron;
- reverse osmosis - membrane filtration.
The scheme of water purification in the apartment.
Mechanical filtration can also be of different degrees: rough cleaning removes particles from 5 to 500 μm in size; thin - 0,5-5 microns; ultrathin - less than 0.5 microns;
The mechanism of odor absorption is carried out by a special sorbent - activated carbon. The mechanism of sorption is carried out in almost all cleaning devices.
The disadvantage of these filters is that the sorption material absorbs all the impurities from the water and accumulates in itself. This leads to the development of bacteria. To prevent this unpleasant incident, the filter is recommended to add silver.
The implementation of ion exchange can accomplish the devices of a more expensive and perfect design. This parameter makes the water soft.
Oxidation makes it possible to turn iron particles into insoluble impurities. This function is a preliminary water purification. This means that the oxidized water must necessarily pass through a fine filter.
Membrane filters promote the production of high filtration water. The main element of these devices is a membrane of a thin film, which is fed with water under a pressure of 3-4 atmospheres.
The membrane has so small pores that it passes only water molecules through itself. That is, 100% purification is provided.
The rest of the water, together with the particles that remained on the other side of the film, goes into the drainage system. This increases the flow of water, but the quality of purified water is justified.
The disadvantage of a membrane filter is that, together with unnecessary particles, the film also delays useful microelements. But this problem can also be solved by installing an additional filter-mineralizer.
A good filter should provide all levels of cleaning and consist of separate filters: mechanical, sorption, membrane and filter-mineralizer.
Only purified by professional filters water benefits the body.