Where does the water in your tap come from?

Probably,manypeoplearefamiliarwiththesituationwhen,tryingtoansweraseeminglysimplequestion,itbecomesclearthatitisratherdifficulttoformulateanexactanswerandtothoroughlyexplainsomeelementarynuancesofthematter.Thesameruleappliestoasimplequestion:wheredoesthetapwatercomefrom?Atfirstglance,thequestionisquitesimpleandevenchildish,butinfactitturnsoutthatnotmanycandescribeindetailtheentiretechnologicalprocessthatprecedesthemomentwhenthewateralreadycleanedandpreparedflowsoutofthetap.

Often,thewaterinthetapcomesfromaconventionalreservoir,previouslycleared.

Often,restingonponds,fewpeoplethinkthatthewaterinthetapcanbefromthissource,whereonholidaysitispossibletoescapefromwithyourfriends.Evenknowingaboutthis,fewpeoplewillcometomindtoquenchtheirthirstwiththiswater,dailyconsumedfromthetap,but,ofcourse,purified.

Toanswerthequestion:wheredoesthewatercomefrom,itisworthwhiletotracetheentireprocessofitsmovement,startingfromsurfacewaters,suchasreservoirsandotherreservoirs,andendingwiththemomentwhenreadyforconsumption,thewaterisdirectedthroughpipelinestoresidentialhouses.

Watertreatmentplant

So,firstthewatercomestothewatertreatmentplant,whereitpassesthetreatmenttoasuitabledrinkingstate.

Thisprocessconsistsofseveralstages,duringeachofwhichwaterisdeprivedofacertaintypeofharmfulcontaminants.

Atthewatertreatmentstation,thewaterispurifiedtoasuitabledrinkingstate.

Attheinitialstage,waterismechanicallycleanedandcleanedofcoarsewaste,suchaslargeorganicmatter,sand,silt,etc.Then,byaddingchemicalreagentstothewaterthatbindanddepositmicroscopicimpurities,thewaterispurifiedagain.Forthepurificationofwater,sorptionmeansthatareabletoabsorbawiderangeofpollutants,includingheavymetalsandmanybacteria,arealsoactivelyused.Ion-exchangematerialsareusedforwatersoftening.Waterinthetapbeforeenteringtheconsumernecessarilypassesadeterministicprocessofdecontamination.

Itshouldbeaddedthatthemethodsandlevelofcleaningproceduresdirectlydependonthetechnologicalcapabilitiesofthewatertreatmentplantandonthedegreeofcontaminationofincomingwater.Probably,manypeopleknowthesituationwhen,tastingthewaterinanewplace,thereisanewtasteandacompletelydifferentquality,differentfromthosetowhichtheyareaccustomed.Specifictasteandsmellofwaterarecharacteristicforeachseparateregion,cityandevendistrictsofonecity.Themainreasonforthisdifferenceisthesourceofsupplyofwaterresources,cleaningmethodsatwatertreatmentplantsandtheconditionofthepipesofthewaterdistributionsystem.

Traditionalandmodernmethods

Schematicdiagramofwaterpurification.

Ifweconsiderthetechnologyofwatertreatmentofdomesticstations,then,ofcourse,thisisnotaveryoptimisticsituation,sincetheintroductionofmoderntechnologies,asalways,doesnothaveenoughfunds,sothedisinfectionofwaterisstillcarriedoutthroughchlorination.Andabouthowbadlyaffectsthehealthofgettingintothebodyofthisreagent,everyoneknowsfromtheschool'sbench.Theunpleasantodorandspecifictasteofthewaterthathasgonethroughchlorinationisjust"flowers".Physicianshavelongknownalltheinsidiousconsequencesoftheconsumptionofchlorinatedwater,so,knowingwherethewatercomesfromandwhatunsafepathitpasses,doctorsrecommendthatyoustopusingtapwaterasadrinkingwater,andinextremecasesuseadditionalfiltersforcleaning.

Ofcourse,inthemoredevelopedcountriestheprocessofdisinfectionofwaterlooksquitedifferent.There,moreeffectiveandharmlessmethodsareactivelyused,suchasultraviolettreatmentandozonation.AndinBelarus,waterisadditionallytreatedfordeferrizationbypreliminaryoxidationofiron-containingfragmentsandtheirfurtherneutralizationandfiltration.

Undergroundtanks

TheschemeofwaterdisinfectionwiththehelpofUV-filter.

Recently,waterfromundergroundsourceshasbecomeincreasinglypopular,fromwherewateristakeninthetapforsomeregions.Themainandindisputableadvantageofgroundwateris,ofcourse,theabsenceinthemoforganicsandmicroorganisms,inexcesscontainedinsurfacewaters.Thisadvantageeliminatestheneedforchlorinationofwaterandmakesitseveralordersofsafetybecausethereisnochlorinecontent.Theonlydrawbackofgroundwateristheincreasedcontentofsaltsofhardness,minerals,heavymetalsandinorganicimpuritiesintheircomposition.Therefore,waterpurificationstationscarryouttheprocedureofwaterpurificationfromthesecompoundstotheexistingnormsofminimumpermissibleconcentrations(MPC).

Afterthecompletionoftheentiretechnologicalprocessofpurificationinlaboratoryconditions,thewateristestedforthecontentofharmfulimpurities,whichmustcorrespondtotheirMPC(thatis,pollutantsareallowed,butinstrictlydefinedconcentrations).

Pumpingstation

Theprincipleofoperationofastandardpumpingstation.

Further,thepurifiedandpreparedforconsumptionwateristransferredtothepumpingstation.Fromhere,waterisdistributedthroughoutthecitywiththehelpofpowerfulpumps.Itflowsoverthebranchedwatersupplysystem,gettingintotheresidentialsector.Ofcourse,atthispointthewatercanagainbesubjectedtosecondarypollutionifthepipelinesystemhasnotchangedforyears.Tothewater,inadditiontotheexistingchlorine,rust,glandularbacteriaandothercompoundscanbeadded.Therefore,theonlywayoutinthissituationistoinstallahomewaterfilter.Thenitwillnotbesoimportantwhereandhowthewaterinthetapistaken,astherewillbeaguaranteethattheabsolutemajorityofharmfulimpuritieswillbeneutralizedbyqualitywatertreatmentdirectlyathome.

Thus,havingbecomeacquaintedwiththesequenceofwaterflowthroughallstagesofacomplexwatertreatmentsystem,pumpingstationsandapipeline,itbecomesclearwherethetapwatercomesfromandwhatkindofthornypathithastoovercome.

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