If you believe statistics, it is in the kitchen is concentrated from 30 to 50% of all "apartment" equipment, that is, electrical appliances. All of them must be provided with power, but in practice it often happens that existing power grids do not withstand such a load. It turns out that the wiring in the kitchen should be carried out by the owner independently - taking into account all individual requirements. You can perform part of the work yourself - but only if you have the experience. As for the preparatory processes, including the drafting of electrical wiring, it can only be done by the owner - at least, the part where it is necessary to calculate the total capacity of the equipment. This will determine how many outlets you need in the kitchen, and also understand how to properly position them.
Preparation for work
Wiring in the kitchen requires a compulsory drafting. In order for it to be correct, it is necessary to determine what equipment is planned to be placed in this room:
- Electric stove (hob, oven);
- Extractor hood;
- Electric kettle;
- Toaster, sandwich maker;
- Multivarka, aerogrill;
- Food processor, mixer;
- Кофемашина and so on.
In the kitchen, it is also often decided to arrange a TV and a washing machine - and each outlet requires its own outlet.
Tip: you should purchase the outlet with a reserve and carefully think over the location of the equipment, so that you do not get confused in the wires.
But just calculating the technique for drafting the wiring will not be enough. Further work is carried out according to this algorithm:
- Determines the type of network coming to the apartment. In the case of single-phase, the total power will be very limited, in the case of three-phase power, the wiring in the kitchen can be created with a noticeable power reserve. As a rule, three-phase wiring in the rooms where an electric oven is installed.
- The total power of kitchen appliances is calculated - for each device the nominal power specified in the technical passport is taken. It should be a value between 8-15 kW (with the simultaneous inclusion of all devices). Of course, in practice all devices are rarely turned on at the same time, but it will be correct if the wiring is created with a power reserve.
- A cable is selected to create the wiring. It is better to use the reference data or instruct the work of a specialist. As for general recommendations, they are as follows: the higher the total power of the device, the thicker the electric cable should be. For example, with a total power of 11 kW, a copper wire with a 6 mm cross section is required, and for a power of 15 kW a cross section of 10 mm is required.
There are other recommendations for choosing a cable for electrical wiring in the kitchen:
- ВВГ-5х6 - five-core with cross-section 6 кв. mm is required for houses with three-phase power supply and connects the lighting panel with the main one;
- ВВГ-2х6 is necessary for connecting shields in houses with 2-phase power;
- ВВГ-3х2,5 is used for standard wiring from shield to junction boxes, and then - to outlets;
- ВВГ-3х1,5 is laid from distribution boxes to lighting devices;
- ВВГ-3х4 - for electric stoves.
Installing the electrical panel
The installation of the shield by one's own hands is as follows:
- At the input, you need to place a residual current device (RCD);
- Each RCD is equipped with a separate plume of outlets (no more than 5 parallel connections);
- Separately connect the circuit of general and local lighting.
Tip: Professionals recommend installing in the kitchen not standard RCDs, but differential automatic machines, with a high degree of protection against increased humidity.
Basic rules for the selection and arrangement of outlets and switches
The main rules for placing outlets and switches when creating electrical wiring with your own hands are as follows:
- Installation of sockets in the kitchen should be done evenly and so that the wiring is directly approached to the location of the equipment;
- It is undesirable to leave sagging long wires;
- The location of the outlets is chosen so that they are not located near the sink or plate - this will protect them from deformation due to overheating or increased humidity;
- Built-in (hidden sockets) are perfect for a home where young children live. In addition, such elements will never spoil the design of the room. By the way, often the location of the sockets in the countertop, which is very convenient for connecting desktop equipment;
- The height of the outlets must always be observed - low positioned elements are not always safe (especially in homes with small children);
- Several powerful devices can not be connected to the same power point;
- A wiring is created throughout the room - it is not necessary to group the sockets in one place, and especially to bring them closer to the vertical.
How to choose the right outlet? And when installing the sockets in the countertop, and when mounting them on a wall, you should give preference to products designed for a current of more than 16 amperes. The most durable are products with ceramic plates and nickel plated lamellae. As for the switches, they should be smooth, this will greatly facilitate cleaning.
The location of the sockets in the kitchen is at a height of 30-40 cm from the floor, and the switches are installed at a meter height and 15 cm from the door jamb. Sometimes a general kitchen switch is taken out and into the corridor. Separate switches are installed for additional lighting in the work area.
Tip: A special corner outlet can be used.
Wiring by yourself - the main stages of installation
The wiring is carried out only by a pre-designed project and after all the necessary materials have been purchased.
The posting is created in the following order:
- Strobliviruyut walls - for the wires to hide inside the wall and masked the finish trim. This will require a drill, special shtroborez or chisel. Before the construction of the Strobl perform marking, marking on the walls those places where the wiring will pass. The length of the strob should be minimal. If there is a need to make a turn, then it is performed at 90 °;
Important! When stroblenii necessarily use glasses and a respirator for protection.
- The necessary shtroby are done by marking, and after that jacks are put under the podrozetniki or built-in sockets. If you plan to install the sockets in the counter, then the nests are not performed;
- Stacking of wires in strobes is carried out using a corrugated tube. To do this, every 30 cm drill holes in the bar - they will fix the corrugation on the dowel-brackets. After the wiring is completed and all the wires are laid, the strobbs are covered with a solution;
- Wiring involves the installation of sockets and switches - this is the final stage of work. In the prepared grooves are installed podrozetniki made of plastic. In them wires are output, where then switches and sockets will be connected. The chimney is leveled and securely fixed in the wall with screws and mortar. Important! Installation of the sockets is carried out only after completion of the finishing work (even if the sockets are built in): the wires coming out of the walls are connected to the terminals, then the mechanism is fixed in the jar, and after - the plastic pads are put on;
- At the last stage, the wiring is connected to the network. The wires from the sockets, lighting points and switches in the junction box are connected to the main wire. All connections are necessarily insulated - for this use PPE or insulating tape.
Creating a wiring in the kitchen with your own hands requires special knowledge and skills, since work with electrical connections is considered dangerous. By the way, in the kitchen it is permissible to create an open, that is, external wiring. This method involves the use of protective boxes, into which the wires will be laid. Use of boxes is advisable in the event that there was a need to replace the wiring in an already renovated room.